Download file―20 ways to make money online

(Image credit: Pixabay.com)

Many people on the internet, especially those who are new on it, do not know much or anything about how to make money online. Would you like to make money online and have more financial freedom?

There is a file containing “20 ways to make money online”: Click this link and access a page where you can click a download button and be given further instructions on how to obtain the file in less than 2 minutes

Read the contents of the file and learn how to use your time each day to make money once you have nothing more than a computer and internet connection (browsing data).

Work online and earn money whenever you want to work online, and take off time from working online whenever you decide to take off time from working online. Note that there are certain ways of making money online that do not require you to always be online; however, you would have to set up the foundation for making money online.

The file contains information, steps and valuable tips that can help you get started and become successful at making money online. Although you don’t have to quit your offline job if you have one; however, if you make good use of the information in the file, you might probably want to quit your offline job.

Many people who have discovered how to make money online are earning either hundreds of dollars, thousands of dollars, tens of thousands of dollars, or even more per month, and living the type of free and easy-going lifestyle they desire.

Advice

  • Without some effort, it will not be possible for you to use the tips in the file to earn the type of money you desire, and live the type of easy-going lifestyle you want. Every successful person has invested time and added value to the lives of other people before making it; If you keep this thought in mind and work patiently, you will be able to make money online on a long term basis.
  • Always work on adding value to people’s lives; if you do so, you will create the foundation for your own authority, make people trust you, and grow your own customers―but it takes time! Making money online depends a lot on numbers: If you do not have significant traffic or following, you will have to work patiently on enhancing it.
  • Do not sacrifice trust for cash: most people would like to make money online, but nobody should sacrifice trust for quick cash.

Click this link and access a page where you can click a download button and be given further instructions on how to obtain the file in less than 2 minutes

Societal customs/practices that have been resisting the adoption of blockchain technology

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Although Blockchain technology has been gradually transforming the economic landscape, and various ways in which business transactions are being handled, its adoption is still being resisted by societal customs/practices in many societies.

This article discusses some major societal customs or practices that have been resisting the adoption of blockchain technology. Societal customs/practices can be regarded as a group of rules or activities that influence the way(s) in which people relate or interact with each other.

In order to be face less resistance and be easily adopted, the acceptance of blockchain technology has to overcome societal customs/practices that have been ingrained into societies or groups of people over a long period of time. The following are major societal customs/practices that have been resisting the adoption of Blockchain technology in many societies:

1. The existing market tradition or culture in a society

According to Shackelford & Myers (2017) and Crosby et al. (2016), blockchain technology has to overcome the tradition or culture of existing markets. The implication of this is that the adoption of blockchain technology has been facing resistance from people who have found it difficult―for one reason or another―to accept it, or change their opinion about it. Some studies (Andreasyan, 2016; Brandman & Thampapillai, 2016; Deloitte, 2016) have noted that businesses, authorities and consumers―which have been ingrained with existing market tradition or culture―do not have sufficient understanding about how blockchain works, its potential uses, and what can be achieved by using it.

2. Laws or regulations

Certain laws or regulations prevent the use of blockchain digital currency technology in a society. Sedgwick (2017) noted that the use of cryptocurrencies are completely disallowed in countries like Ecuador, Bangladesh, and Bolivia; although this is the case in many places, Cermeño (2016) stated that regulators and policymakers are concentrating their efforts on regulating the ways in which cryptocurrencies can be used; their aim is to prevent criminal activities and taxation,

Generally speaking, laws or legislation have to be modified or amended in order to incorporate the use of blockchain technology in many societies.

3. The type of government: governance

The level of resistance to blockchain technology depends on the type of government (or government activities) in place. Ølnes et al. (2017) noted that, although blockchain needs to be controlled by government, it is also a viable tool for governing people. There is a difference in the extent to which different political parties believe in different types of technologies; for blockchain technology to be easily adopted, the right belief system should be in place; this would help inspire and create appropriate governance frameworks and applicable laws that make blockchain technology easily adopted.

Conclusion

In order for blockchain technology to face lesser resistance and become more accepted than it has been, existing market traditions have to be modified, laws have to be rewritten, and various types of government systems have to be more aware of what the real nature of blockchain technology is all about: the societal customs/practices that have been resistant to the adoption of blockchain technology can be shaped and erased, depending on the type of society.

References

Andreasyan, T. (2016). ISITC Europe and oasis to define technical standards for blockchain. Banking Technology, 13.

Brandman, G., & Thampapillai, S. (2016). Blockchain – Considering the regulatory horizon. Oxford Business Law Blog.

Cermeño, J. S. (2016). Blockchain in financial services: Regulatory landscape and future challenges for its commercial application. Madrid, Spain: BBVA Research.

Crosby, M., Pattanayak, P., Verma, S., & Kalyanaraman, V. (2016). Blockchain technology: Beyond bitcoin. Applied Innovation, 2, 6–10.

Deloitte (2016). Blockchain: Enigma. Paradox. Opportunity. London: Deloitte LLP.

Ølnes, S., Ubacht, J., & Janssen, M. (2017). Blockchain in government: Benefits and implications of distributed ledger technology for information sharing. Government Information Quarterly, 34(3), 355–364.

Sedgwick, K. (2017). Five countries where bitcoin is illegal.

Shackelford, S. J., & Myers, S. (2017). Block-by-block: leveraging the power of blockchain technology to build trust and promote cyber peace. Yale Journal of Law and Technology, 19, 334.

A Review of PDFelement Pro―PDF Editor software for PC

Although many PDF editors exist in the world, only a few are easy to use, effective, cheap or affordable, and can be used for many purposes. As usual, whatever information or thing I feel is good or important, I always try my best to make it available through blog posts on this site―and this one is no exception.

This post is a review of PDFelement Pro editor (from iskysoft.com) which is among the best PDF editors on the planet because it is effective, affordable, and can be used for many purposes that are relevant to files. I advise that you recommend it to your family members and friends who could need it for practical or professional reasons.

The PDFelement Pro―PDF Editor for PC has a well-designed split-pane interface and a toolbar that stretches from the right to left edges at the top of the PC screen. The toolbar consists of a submenu of different tools that have their respective icons which indicate different functions for editing PDF files, converting PDF files, and other carrying out other functions which are listed below: under “Uses of PDFelement Pro―PDF Editor”.

On the left of the PC screen is a pane that enables any user of the PDF file editor software to open and navigate through the most recently opened PDF files, and their pages. Generally, the main tools also include functions for creating PDF files, editing PDF files, converting PDF files to different types of office files, modifying PDFs, cropping PDF files, and changing the background color of any PDF file or image from one color to another.

Click here and read more details about PDFelement Pro―PDF editor

Uses of PDFelement Pro―PDF Editor

After downloading the PDFelement Pro editor and using it, I have observed that it is an easy PDF editor software which has features or functions that can be used for the following purpose:

  • to edit PDF texts, images, and graphics: the software has features that can be used to add notes, instructions or annotations to PDF files.
  • to convert PDF texts, images, and graphics: the software converts PDF files into other formats like MS Word, MS Excel, PowerPoint, Epub, HTML, RTF, TIFF, etc. It is possible to convert files because the PDF editor has OCR (Optical Character Recognition) tool.
  • to perform multiple PDF conversions, and extract data in bulk by using the batch processing tool.
  • to create PDF texts, images, and graphics from Office documents (Word, Excel, PowerPoint, etc.).
  • to redact PDF texts, images, and graphics, and easily compress them.
  • to collaborate with other people or teams that are interested in using several cloud services like Dropbox, Evernote, and Google Drive to work on PDFs. This feature enables many users to access important documents, and work together from any part of the world.

In addition, the software can be used to:

  • combine or merge many PDF files, and split large PDF files into separate files.
  • protect PDF files by signing documents and validating signatures; the software can also be used to clear all signatures: it has a feature that can protect documents with passwords.
  • etc.

Read more information about PDFelement Pro―PDF editor

50% Discount to Get PDFelement Pro―PDF Editor

As at the date of publication of this post, there is a 50% discount to have this easy-to-use PDF file editor software. The actual price for subscription is $159, but due to the 50% discount, the price is reduced by 50% to $79.50.

You might decide to test the free trial version of PDFelement Pro―PDF Editor before you subscribe; in this case, one thing you have to take note of is that there is a difference between the free trial version, and the version for subscription―and the difference is this: on the free trial version, you won’t have access to technical support, a watermark will appear on your PDF documents, and you won’t be able to convert more than 5 pages of each document.

Click here to get 50% discount in order to get the software for any PC that uses either Mac or Windows

If you would like to make use of OCR (optical character recognition) to convert images such as scanned paper or pictures from digital cameras into editable data such as PDFs, then you would have to subscribe to PDFelement Pro―PDF Editor for $79.50, which is at 50% discount.

An added advantage of using PDFelement Pro―PDF Editor is that if you subscribe to it, you will be able to convert files into different formats in 23 different languages; this feature will greatly assist people who would like to use the PDF editor for international purposes, or businesses.

The drawbacks of using PDFelement Pro―PDF Editor

  • you may have to hover your cursor over each individual tool/icon in order to discover their individual functions. However, despite this drawback, you will find out that the PDF editor is easy to use, and navigate through.
  • the trial version has limitations.

Conclusion

PDFelement Pro 7 is inexpensive, one of the best PDF editors, and can be used on Windows (10, 8, 7, Vista and XP) and Mac to make documents look appealing and professional.

Click here and subscribe at 50% discount rate for PDFelement Pro―PDF Editor software program on any PC that uses either Mac or Windows

The PDF editor for PC comes as a download, and can be accessed on any computer which it is downloaded and installed on.

Please share this post with your colleagues who could be students, teachers, businesspeople, or people who cut cross many other types of professions.

Acquire the best PDF file editor by clicking here and getting a 50% discount once you subscribe for the PDF editor software

Just published my book on Amazon—Thanks for your continuous support & endless motivation

This post is not actually dedicated to me; it’s dedicated to all of you who have been reading, liking, and commenting on my articles, especially the ones on motivation.

Without interacting with all of you, it would almost have been impossible to generate sufficient motivation to continue writing articles, and combine ideas and content from a few of them to produce a book which, after a lot of questioning from Amazon, has finally been published.

Many people might not believe that I wouldn’t have been able to write a book without motivation from interacting with you all; however, this is very true because I never actually planned to write a book in the past until I started blogging—and most especially, interacting with bloggers and the wider internet base.

Hundreds of followers downloaded the eBook “Real Faith that can Deeply Inspire You Forever” (in PDF) some time ago when I published an article about it, and made it available for free via download buttons.

I was deeply inspired by the number of downloads, and decided to search online for where to publish it for sale. Now it has been accepted and put up for sale on one of the world’s most popular platforms for viewing, reading and buying Kindle and paperback books—Amazon.

Just published my book on Aazon Kindle

 

Just published 1

 

Just published 2

 

Just published main 1

Download my self-published book on Amazon for free: Real Faith that can Deeply Inspire you Forever (PDF)On the other hand, you may decide to purchase it or read the digital (Kindle) version on Amazon if you are a registered member of Amazon Kindle Unlimited.

Note that hard cover copies of the book are also available, and can be purchased here. In case you are able to give reviews on Amazon, kindly give your best possible review by using the “customer reviews” button located at the bottom of a web page that can be accessed through a link which is at the ending part of the previous paragraph.

This new book can boost your faith, positivity, and outlook about life. The chapters in the book which consists majorly of ideas and content from this site, include the following:

1. Faith: the superpower that materializes desires & gives new life to dying ambitions

  • The shield of faith
  • Developing the shield of faith

2. Faith: still strong enough to alter today’s facts

3. Your outcome in life is determined by what you believe in: faith or fact

4. The reality of invisible worlds & life: physical & spiritual

  • Evidences of invisible life
  • The reality of the spiritual world, & life after death

5. How to develop strong faith

  • Definition of faith
  • How strong faith can be developed
  • Certain things that can affect faith

6. How to influence your mind to attract your desires and a glorious afterlife

  • Have a good intention to acquire what you desire
  • Decide what you want
  • Give unto others so that it will be easier for you to receive
  • Make it a habit to always practice visualizing what you want

7. There is magic in positive thinking—always think positively!

  • If positive thinking is effective, why can’t everybody do it?
  • Is there evidence that positive thinking is effective?

8. Past events that disproved the impossible: one person’s impossibility is another person’s possibility

  • Past events that illustrate how people who studied the impossible changed the course of the world
  • The New York Times
  • Nineteenth century chemists
  • Lord Kelvin
  • Albert Einstein
  • Stephen Hawking

9. Prophets of technology, or Prophets of GOD?

  • Two great visionaries
  • Leonardo da Vinci
  • Jules Verne
  • Were they prophets of technology, or prophets of GOD?

10. How to turn defeat into victory by experimenting with different things

  • Look away from defeat at the bottom of the ladder, and towards victory at the top of the ladder
  • Everyone who truly turned defeat into victory, encountered and responded to one form of defeat or another
  • Although it is barely impossible to succeed without encountering hardship and opposition, it is possible to use hardship to move forward and upward ever
  • The lesson is this: gain or salvage something valuable from every situation—good or bad
  • Instead of blaming people or bad luck, look at challenges or setbacks and learn from them

11. The fight of faith: why give up when time comes to fight this important battle?

  • Despite our knowledge about positivity, why do many of us lose the battle of faith?
  • So how can we acquire faith?

12. The importance of protecting your unlimited potential: a look at some unlimited potential achievements & quotes

  • But what is the meaning of unlimited potential?
  • Some of the greatest unlimited potential achievements in history
  • Some popular and inspiring quotes on unlimited potential & possibilities

13. The universality of GOD’s power

  • GOD’s power is so universal, it can be found in the smallest and mightiest deeds in creation
  • The universality of GOD’s power also reaches the deepest part of the human spirit
  • The universality of GOD’s power makes it possible for GOD to be contacted from anywhere in the universe—anywhere!

14. The everlasting generosity of GOD, the universe, or Mother Nature

  • The generosity of GOD seems to be a law in the universe! Why? Because it can be seen everywhere

Thanks a lot for your continuous support and endless motivation.

How faith comes, grows, and increasingly becomes stronger!

The feeling of blogging to 1st position on Google in 28 countries

My blogging career: questions, and my answers

(Featured Image Credit: Pixabay.com.)

The qualities of real leaders that the world loves—be a real leader and people will follow you

The world loves a leader…you can see it everywhere: in organizations, societies, states, countries, and even on the internet…there is no part of the world where people aren’t eagerly looking for someone to follow, learn from and take action. Real leaders are admired by people because they show the world how value can be added to every activity. Be a true leader and people will follow you. (Featured image credit: Pixabay.com.)

Among the multitudes of people living on Earth, there are certain people whose aura and attitude show that they have an irresistible urge to achieve something greater, and they always fight better whenever they fall.

Their capacity for work is relentless, and people continue to admire them each time they carry out one activity or another.

One undeniable fact is that the world loves a real leader; you can see it everywhere: in organizations, societies, states, countries, and even on the internet.

There is no part of the world where people aren’t eagerly looking for someone to follow. People tend to look up to someone who can inspire and show them how important self-discovery is.

The awesome qualities of real leaders

Real leaders instill confidence in others by the virtue of the fact that they have utter confidence in themselves and exude it in action, and also in the power of words they utter.

This is what makes them radiate invincibility and continue to be greatly admired: the obvious consciousness and radiance of their own power—in thoughts, actions and words.

All articles on motivation & self-help

Real leaders do not impose any limit on their own beliefs and abilities; therefore, they are not limited by the limitations that wear out most people!

Regardless of whether they are humble or not, real leaders don’t have unnecessary egotistical reasons to aspire to any office, position, or any goal.

Even after succeeding, their attitude shows that they strongly believe that talents are just starting points for success—they have to keep working on their talents.

Real leaders work efficiently and show humanity that each person’s outcome in life depends on what they believe in—fact or faith.

Most of their actions motivate people to invest time and effort because they have proven that investment is the basis of getting things accomplished in life.

In addition, they have proven too many times that each person’s best days are still ahead of them, and each person’s faith could be strong enough to alter current facts.

Although real leaders may lack training and formal education, they always draw upon ideas from within themselves, educate themselves, and find ways to succeed, no matter any existing circumstances.

Many real leaders don’t allow the absence of wealth, sufficiency and exposure to stop them from adding unequalled value to the accomplishments of humanity.

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Many great and lasting dynasties were started by poor and uneducated real leaders who used their inner creativity to comprehend the world around them and conduct activities in ways that radiated leadership qualities which made them stand out from the masses.

The businesses of all ages have been filled with successful leaders; some (or many) hardly acquired formal education; probably because they lacked the opportunity, or thought it wasn’t important.

It was after Scottish-American industrialist, Andrew Carnegie, made his millions that he hired a teacher to give him the basics of formal education.

On the other hand, many other successful people never acquired formal education, and never hired anyone to give it to them.

So fundamentally speaking, it isn’t training and education that makes real leaders successful and admired. Don’t get it wrong: training and education are good—they help—but what actually counts is how well you use the creativity that resides within you!

Conclusion

You have great gifts; use them! Learn how to make profit out of every thought that comes to your mind. Think about how to make them work and produce for you—there will always be a way.

Don’t look at things as they are, or how they should remain; rather, think about how better they can become—more interesting, more efficient, and with much more life, value and vitality.

It’s not good enough to merely dream; go a bit further and make conscious efforts to transform your dream into reality.

Real leaders are admired and followed by people because they show the world how value can be added to every activity, and also to mankind which they are part of.

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The impact of Nigeria’s border closure on its own economy

The mandate of any nation’s customs and border control agencies is to allow licit and legal free trades, and halt illicit and illegal trades. Illicit and illegal trades involve the movement of various types of commodities and services that usually lead to the creation of numerous black markets which have been known to slowly but gradually cripple economies.

Many times in the past, Nigeria usually closed its borders because of one form of illicit trade or another. However, border closure has often led to inefficient operations within licit and legal supply chains, thus increasing costs and time delays, disrupting deliveries, and interrupting the smooth flow of goods and services.

Once again, and recently in August, 2019, Nigeria—which shares boundaries with the republics of Benin, Niger, and Cameroon—closed its land border to the movement of goods. The government declared that it did so in order to halt smuggling of food and weapons into the country, especially from Benin republic.

In many instances, regardless of the situation at hand, most countries don’t often close their borders to the free trade of goods and services. Rather, they close their borders whenever their security is in jeopardy. Examples of countries that have closed their borders in the past in order to enhance national security, include: Eritrea, Kenya, Sudan, and Rwanda—amongst others.

During other circumstances, some countries usually close their borders in order to control or stop the spread of diseases (such as Ebola) that have the potential to travel across borders. It is recommendable to close borders in order to put a halt to arm smuggling; on the other hand, when borders are closed, food becomes scarcer, and inflation ensues, thereby harming the economy and citizens.

As reported in many news outlets, the current president of Nigeria, Muhammadu Buhari, ordered the most recent border closure with one main aim: to curb smuggling of rice (a staple food in Nigeria) from Benin and Niger into Nigeria—Africa’s most populous nation.

According to the government, the most recent and worrying problems that lead to another border closure included the smuggling of rice, and the illicit exportation of cheap subsidized petrol from Nigeria to its neighboring countries. In fact, according to most oil marketers in Nigeria, between 10% and 20% of Nigerian fuel is usually smuggled abroad.

The current Nigeria government, which has been strengthening its economic policies, believes that if it continues allowing importation of cheaper goods, it would be difficult for the country to increase local production and become a self-sufficient nation. Authorities reason that border closure will promote local production; on the other hand, critics argue that when demand exceeds domestic production, the country would have no better option than to fully engage in cross-border trade with neighboring countries.

The truth is that the government cannot always control demand which usually increases due to the increasing number of births and mouths that have to be fed on a daily basis. Since Nigeria doesn’t always have the local capacity to produce enough rice to meet up with the populace’s demand, any attempt to close the border and halt importation could lead to more smuggling, and increase in the price of goods for local consumers.

Any person who can recall the cases of corruption which Nigeria has experienced, would tend to believe that the smuggling of fuel and goods should be blamed on the country’s personnel who have been in charge of securing Nigeria’s borders. The sad fact is that the country’s poor citizens—who are far much more in number than the rich—are the ones who usually suffer when government personnel at the borders receive bribes and allow smuggling to take place to such an extent that the government has no better option than to close its borders.

Although it is quite true that, like all other governments, the Nigeria government has the right to close its borders. On the other hand, whenever borders are closed, it leads to positive and negative impacts on the economy and citizens, with merits and demerits alike.

Positive impact: Merits of Nigeria border closure

  • Although nobody might have sufficient knowledge of the full impact of smuggled fuel, food, drugs and ammunition into Nigeria, border closure has actually helped to prevent excess ammunition and drugs from entering the country, causing economic mayhem, and destroying the futures or lives of children who can possibly become good leaders tomorrow.
  • Border closure boosts Nigeria government’s pockets or revenues because more duties are being received whenever any illegal goods are forced to enter the country legally through the land ports. According the current Nigeria Customs Service boss, Nigeria has made more money since it recently closed its land borders.

Negative impact: Demerits of Nigeria border closure

  • Although border closure can help control the trade of illicit drugs and weapons, the shutdown of the Benin border in particular, has already caused food inflation in Nigeria—and the inflation only continues to accelerate. For instance, since the most recent Nigeria border closure in August, 2019, the cost of buying a bag (50 kilograms) of rice has risen from N 9,000 (about $25) to N 22,000 (about $60).
  • Border closure makes the poor ones in Nigeria to pay higher prices for goods, while those responsible for smuggling live comfortably. It seems that the government is not aware that most poor people don’t have the means to acquire, store, and transport and smuggle large volumes of goods and services—these are the same people that border closure harms the most.
  • Whenever there is border closure, most businesses and markets that create income in border communities usually shut down, and the passage of taxis, motorcycles, trucks and passengers drastically reduces. The price of petrol usually shoots up and doubles, while motorcycle and taxi drivers triple their own prices. Small businesses that depend on cross-border trading, usually fold up. The helpless society ends up suffering because of a handful of powerful smugglers who either have ties with government officials, or ties with themselves and ordinary people who they have control over.
  • Border closure negatively impacts Nigerian businesses that focus on exporting goods and services. The impression most people would get from statements made by Nigeria government is that border closure works only one way—on importation; it seems the government hasn’t looked enough at the other side—on exportation. It has to be noted that Nigeria, which is actually a net exporter through borders, can also affect its exportation whenever it closes its borders. In fact, a recent report made by FSDH Merchant bank clearly stated that some textile firms in northern Kano city closed down because they could no longer export goods across the border with Niger republic.
  • Border closure has been giving Nigeria a negative impression in a committee of nations like ECOWAS. Why? Because it breaches the accepted protocol on the free movement of services, goods, and people. There is a protocol, or an understanding established by the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), to which Nigeria belongs. Nigeria’s position on border closure reveals how less concerned it is about making free trade as free as it has agreed that it should be. Border closure undermines and devalues agreements, and could destroy any trust, understanding and goodwill.
  • With intermittent or temporary border closure around the “giant of Africa”, it might be much more difficult for pessimistic critics to agree how free trade would increase intra-Africa trade to 60% by 2022, as has been earlier projected. Border closure has raised concerns about the type of free trade that is being practiced in West Africa, especially as it has been known to cause shortages in supply of materials that have been imported from Nigeria to neighboring countries.

Recommendations to Nigeria government

It can be complex and extremely demanding to manage and facilitate legitimate and legal free trade while concurrently preventing illicit trade—but it can be done! Experience has proven that border closure, on its own, will not be able to solve the problems that arise as a result of smuggling.

Also, a porous border could be indirectly reflecting the corruption of some unknown or hidden Nigeria government officials, and the failure of the Nigeria Customs Service to carry out its duties in an efficient manner.

Nigeria government officials argue that Nigeria’s porous borders allow people to smuggle goods and services and still not pay tariffs and excise duties. Instead of closing the borders intermittently and causing untold hardship for border communities, and businesses of neighboring Benin and Niger, the Nigeria government should take a critical look at its personnel—the ones who are in charge of securing its porous borders. A strong inquiry should be made in order to find out whether the personnel are actually doing the work they ought to do. Are they fulfilling their duties on behalf of the nation? A nation usually reflects the qualities and characteristics of the people who work for it.

The influence that unquestionable cabals and powerful interest groups have on political decisions, would make an ordinary citizen have no belief in any type of border closure, especially when it has been ineffective in the past. The following are recommendable:

  • the Nigerian government should take a critical look at its customs service personnel and remove the inefficient ones; if it doesn’t do so, each time it reopens its borders, the same old smuggling activities could still rise up and continue because of the presence of corrupt personnel. In many cases, Nigeria needs a competent customs service, not intermittent or temporary border closures.
  • the Nigeria government should modernize or improve the state of its customs service by using more information technology and applying more formal management procedures which can improve accountability and transparency which are the cornerstones of incorruptible societies. Whatever the case may be, the Nigeria government should honor its free trade agreement with ECOWAS, and still improve its existing port logistics; in addition, it should construct and properly link all known and yet-to-be-discovered railway lines and road infrastructures. Reliable evidence-gathering techniques should be considered and employed, such as undercover operations and electronic surveillance.
  • after leaving farming and relying heavily on fuel for decades, the Nigeria government should be patient and use as many years (as it left agriculture for fuel) to invest in farming; and it should do so to such an extent that it won’t make the poor masses suffer whenever there is border closure—or whenever border closure becomes to necessary, especially for security reasons. Although it is true that border closure could help to boost local food production, it should also be noted that food—especially rice, its staple food—takes time to grow; it also needs extra time to be harvested, processed and sold. Moreover, the country’s struggling farming industry cannot keep up with the huge increase in its citizens’ demand for a staple food like rice. Generally speaking, in the present-day, Nigeria is not yet sufficient enough to close its borders without making its citizens suffer for it.
  • whenever it becomes necessary to close borders, border closure should go hand-in-hand with strategies that can build economic growth and address a range of social needs, including health, education, social security, job opportunities and environmental stewardship.
  • the Nigeria government should promote shared responsibility: it should increase public-private dialogue on the issue of border closure and promote partnerships with organizations and governments that can help address the global nature of illicit trade which border closure hopes to prevent. Public and private organizations do have evidence-based work programs that can effectively address and halt illicit trades.
  • the Nigeria government should strengthen its legislation by actually penalizing people who conspire and participate in smuggling. Nigeria security agencies, which are widely known for taking bribes and allowing offenders to get off the legal hook, should be compelled to act better than they have been doing.