The reality of global warming: scary facts, and possible future consequences

(Image credit: Pixabay.com.) Present environmental threats caused by heating the Earth beyond the extent that nature’s sun does—and possible future consequences.

It’s very likely that most people would feel uncomfortable if too much heat-emitting activities (such as cooking, use of electrical appliances, etc.) occur in their houses; in addition, most people would feel “very very” uncomfortable if there are no escape routes for heat generated from too many activities that produce heat, and make their houses difficult to stay in.

If the statements in the previous paragraph are true, then imagine how much more uncomfortable all living things on Earth would feel as a result of negative impacts man-made (artificial) activities on the environment—especially when generated heat is trapped within Earth’s atmosphere.

Man-made activities, such as breeding/raising livestock, and burning of fossil fuels (coal, natural gas, and oil to power industries, vehicles, and appliances in homes) usually release high quantities of carbon dioxide, methane, etc., into the atmosphere.

These gases, along with nitrous oxide and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), amongst others, are greenhouse gases, and contribute to “the greenhouse effect”.

The higher the concentration of greenhouse gases in the Earth’s atmosphere, the more heat will be trapped within the Earth’s environment.

High quantities of trapped heat cause global temperatures to rise—“global warming”.

Extra details about the causes of global warming

Although details of global warming are well known, some important points will be stated for the benefit of those who might not know a thing or two about it.

Naturally, certain gases like carbon dioxide and methane (known as greenhouse gases—GHGs) help the Earth to trap the sun’s heat (cosmic rays) in the atmosphere, from where plants absorb it, use it to grow to maturity, and provide all types of food that empower all other living things.

Also, naturally, greenhouse gases warm the Earth’s surface to an extent that is enough to sustain all forms of life. Without greenhouse gases, the average temperature of the Earth would be around zero degrees (0º) Fahrenheit, instead of today’s temperature which is around 58º Fahrenheit.

(Note that a temperature of 0º Fahrenheit would not be sufficient enough to empower many important natural processes that keep most forms of life alive.)

Man-made activities, especially burning of fossil fuel and coal, produces methane, other greenhouse gases, and carbon cycles that emit carbon dioxide which is absorbed every year by oceans, seas, plants, lands, etc.

Greenhouse gases cause the greenhouse effect, and negatively impact global climate by warming.

97% of scientists believe that man-made activities are the major cause of global warming

Mankind has to be concerned about global warming, especially when multiple reviews of scientific literature have pointed to the fact that about 97% of scientists/climate specialists believe that man-made activities are the major cause of the high level of global warming which the world has been experiencing in recent times.

Also, according to the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, scientists have concluded with 90% confidence that global warming is increasing beyond the natural level because of increasing heat-emitting man-made activities which produce lots of carbon dioxide through burning of natural non-renewable resources like fossil fuel oil, and coal.

In an Assessment Report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, “atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide are unprecedented in the last 800,000 years”.

It is now an indisputable fact that the earth is heating up. In fact, within the last century, the Earth’s temperature is believed to have risen by 1.3° Fahrenheit, and temperatures are still rising.

With global warming on the rise, in about 10, 20, or more years from today, mankind will likely feel greater negative impact of man-made burning and heating activities if sensible ways are not discovered and used to halt escalating rates of heating activities.

The negative effect of gases generated from man-made (anthropogenic) activities has been observed in the climate system, and is believed to be the major cause of global warming which has been observed since the middle of last century—the 20th century.

Evidence of the negative impacts of global warming

  • The thickness of ice in the regions around the north of the Arctic Circle has decreased by a surprising 50% within the past 50 years. Currently, much of the Arctic ice is just below the freezing point, and is floating on water where it is highly sensitive to little rises in temperature that can make it melt completely.
  • Large chunks of ice at the South Pole around the Antarctic Circle, which have been stable for tens of thousands of years, are gradually breaking off. In fact, during the year 2000, a piece of ice with an area of about 4,200 square miles, broke off. Also, in the year 2002, a large piece of ice broke off in the Thwaites Glacier.
  • In 2007, Greenland’s ice shelves decreased in size by 24 square miles. In 2008, it decreased further by 21 square miles.
  • Each time the ocean rises vertically by one foot, it spreads horizontally by about 100 feet, and covers more land. Researchers observed that sea levels rose by 8 inches in the past century, and was due to expansion of seawater as a result of absorbing more heat.
  • As the Earth’s temperature in rising, tropical diseases are gradually spreading northward; dangerous insects, waterborne diseases and malaria are spreading northwards.
  • From reliable records of temperatures taken in the past, 1995, 2005, and 2010 ranked among the hottest years ever, while the period between 2000 and 2009 was once considered to be the hottest decade.
  • Recent levels of carbon dioxide emission have been the highest in the past 100,000 years.

Despite all the evidence some people still don’t believe in global warming

It’s surprising that with all the evidence presented to the world by science, quite a number of people still don’t believe the globe is heating or warming up.

It is obvious that such people need to be educated to an extent. The following points could really clear up misunderstandings, or unfounded beliefs:

  • Greenhouse effect causes global warming when the Earth’s atmosphere traps heat radiating from the Earth towards space. Examples of gases that contribute to the greenhouse effect include water (H2O) vapor, nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide, and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs).
  • There are 2 types of greenhouse effects that are part of global warming: man-made (anthropogenic) greenhouse effect, and natural greenhouse effect. Man-made greenhouse effect is caused by mankind, while natural greenhouse effect (which is mild) is caused by nature.
  • Natural greenhouse effect is spurred by natural solar and cosmic rays, and is extremely important because it supports all forms of life.
  • The major problem is that the general greenhouse effect (natural + man-made) has been strengthened by man-made activities, and made life-threatening negative impact on the whole environment.
  • Human activities, such as burning of fossil fuels, clearing of forests, amongst others, have strengthened the general greenhouse effect (natural + man-made), and caused global warming to be higher than it naturally was in the near and distant past; also, recent negative effects of warming are worse than at any other time in recorded history.
  • Man-made activities (especially the incessant and excessive burning of large quantities of fuel) have increased the total quantity of heat, and caused overall global warming (natural + man-made) to be higher than the natural level that cosmic rays has been producing for billions of years.
  • The greenhouse effect, which has increased excessively due to increasing man-made activities, is mainly attributed to increasing carbon dioxide emission levels.

One major question usually asked by people who don’t believe in global warming—and an answer

Question: If global warming is real, why is it so cold in some parts of the world?

Answer: Global warming is a gradual and on-going process that does not prevent cold weathers. Global warming can make average cold weathers not to be colder, and average warm weathers to be hotter: when temperatures are rising, it would be unlikely for colder weathers to occur, and likely for hotter weathers to occur.

Another thing is that a study of special local weather patterns could be misleading. Weather specialists have observed that cold winters in the North-eastern part of U.S.A. could be an exception; in which case there is abnormal warm winter around the same period in the whole of the northern hemisphere.

Over time, scientists expect winters to become shorter as global temperatures continue to rise. Some researchers have observed that colder-than-average winters could be caused by climate change. How? As the climate warms, more water vapor is produced; it enters the atmosphere, intensifies rain and snowstorms, thereby creating colder and snowier environments—winter.

Possible negative impacts of global warming in the future—if man-made heating activities are not curbed

  • According to the United Nations, sea levels could rise by 7 to 23 inches by the year 2100.
  • The polar ice cap may vanish completely and permanently, and alter the Earth’s natural weather by changing the flow of air and ocean currents around the world.
  • If all the ice in Antarctica melts, sea levels would rise by about 180 feet worldwide.
  • If all the ice in Greenland melts, sea levels would rise by about 21 feet worldwide.
  • If ocean and sea levels continue to rise, there will be a gradual change in the orientation of the map of the Earth’s coastlines

Do you think mankind should completely put a halt to man-made activities that have been heating up the Earth and causing drastic negative impacts on the environment? Or, do you think global warming does not exist, and mankind should continue with its current rate of fossil fuel usage, and other activities that have been causing global warming?

Comments about your opinion will be appreciated in the comment section.

Will mankind’s creation overpower mankind?— The future of AI (artificial intelligence)

It’s normal for everyone to believe that any creator would always have power or influence over their creation.

Believers in GOD know that GOD created man from dust, and then “breathed the breathe of life into his nostrils, and man became a living soul.”

On the other hand, believers in mythology believe that the ancient gods (who were probably GOD’s creatures, just like mankind is) had divine power to create and control their creations.

In fact, Greek mythology states that the goddess Aphrodite could make statues spring to life. Aphrodite, who had pity on an artists named “Pygmalion”, after he fell uncontrollably in love with a statue, granted him his best wish and turned the statue into a beautiful woman called “Galatea”.

The god Hephaestus, who was the blacksmith of the gods, had the ability to create a militant army made of metal; he animated each member of an army to move in a way that looked human.

Today, mankind is like Hephaestus, forging metals, animating machines, and “breathing life”not only into clay, but into steel, zinc, silicon, aluminium, and other metals—thereby creating artificial forms of intelligence.

But, will artificial intelligence keep elevating us higher, and to a point of total freedom, or complete destruction?

Will artificial intelligence overpower mankind if mankind is not careful?

Available information points to the fact that, if mankind is not careful, it could be overpowered by its own creation, especially when its creation is given autonomy, or a very high degree of it.

What is autonomy?

Autonomy is the ability to make decisions without external influence. In the field of robotics, autonomy is a term used to refer to the ability a robot has to make decisions without human interference or influence.

We may agree that the autonomy GOD gave mankind, has been used by mankind to do many meaningful things—not to mention the meaningless ones.

Autonomous robots (subjects of AI), just like human beings, also have the ability to make their own decisions and carry out actions.

A well-designed autonomous robot is one that is programmed to perceive what is going on in its surroundings, and make decisions based on what it perceives, or “has been programmed to recognize”.

If an autonomous robot hasn’t been programmed to recognize a factor that hasn’t been detected/known, but is highly influencial, then how good would the robot be at doing the job it has been designed for?

I don’t think it would be that good.

The possibility that autonomous AI can cause problems for mankind

If autonomous robots have been “programmed”, isn’t it possible that they might not have been “programmed sufficiently enough”? Insufficient programming could lead to confusion and a lot of problems.

Although it’s not good to be pessimistic, we may agree that if science & technology is mixed with a selfish, war-mongering, and materially-minded attitude, then autonomous AI could ruin mankind, and probably bring mankind to a bitter end.

Mankind’s creation (AI) has autonomous abilities/tendencies

In the age of science we’ve witnessed the industrial revolution, the electronic revolution, and many others. In the robotic revolution (which contains both human-decision-based AI, and autonomous AI) there are “Predator drones”: pilotless robot planes that are actually pilotless.

They have been used with spot-on accuracy to target terrorists in countries like Pakistan and Afghanistan. On the other hand, they have been less accurate on a number of occasions.

Currently, there are cars that can drive themselves. Also, there is a highly advanced robot (named ASIMO—Advanced Step in Innovative Mobility) that can do a lot of things some human beings can’t do. It can move around, walk slowly, run, climb stairs, serve coffee, and even dance.

AI based on human decisions, and AI based on autonomous decisions

AI can be controlled, either by human decisions, or by autonomous decisions: it’s either human beings make decisions for robots, or robots make decisions and take actions by themselves—autonomously, and based on programmes (programming).

The Predator drone, which operates from the sky, and is used to fire deadly missiles at terrorists, is controlled by a human being who probably sits in front of a computer screen (away from the drone) and selects targets; in this instance, a human being calls the shots, and decides what/where should be targeted.

(No one knows for sure whether human beings, or the drones themselves, are at fault whenever wrong targets are being hit.)

Another example involving human decision, is when a car drives itself under the influence of a GPS map stored in its memory, and is controlled by human beings who are somewhere else away from the car.

These two examples won’t easily erase the nightmare of having fully conscious and autonomous robots that might be insufficiently programmed.

Autonomous robots, like “the Roomba”, are capable of making decisions based on what they perceive in their surroundings.

Autonomous robots, which make decisions based on a set of sensors that allow them perceive their environments, do their jobs without the aid of human beings.

But, if programming is insufficient, will autonomous robots do their jobs properly?

So generally speaking, there are two different types of robots

The first type of robot, which requires human decisions, is remote-controlled by human beings; while the second one, which is autonomous, is programmed to follow precise instructions without interference from human beings.

These types of robots are already in existence and have generated a lot of air/internet waves.

The robots could be slowly entering into human activities, as much as they have been entering into battlefields and places where humans wouldn’t want to waste their time.

If human beings decide not to make decisions—as is the case with autonomous robots—they (humans) could be playing with helpful toys that are two-edged swords, and have the potential to bring a combination of both help and destruction.

Without precise and properly monitored decision-making from human beings, smart autonomous robots (especially those designed for warfare) could bring something unsavoury upon mankind.

Conclusion

Although it’s true that awesome breakthroughs have been made, things have to be put into a healthier perspective, especially after scientists once voiced their opinions at a conference where they stated that in about 20 to 1,000 years time, they believe that mankind will create robots that could be as smart as mankind itself.

In addition, The New York Times once ran a headline titled: “Scientists Worry Machines May Outsmart Man.”

And if we examine autonomous robots closely, there is less conviction about how properly mankind will be able to continue controlling them.

The spiritual implication of human cloning: What could GOD’s perspective be?

With ongoing presumption that scientists have cloned, might have cloned, or would clone human beings after successfully cloning animals, what could be opinion of mankind’s creator about cloning? What could GOD’s perspective be?

But first, what is cloning?

Cloning is a process in which genetically identical or similar-looking entities of the same organism are produced, either naturally, or artificially—as is the practice in laboratory experiments carried out by medical scientists.

Naturally, many organisms produce clones by asexual reproduction. Artificially, medical scientists have been producing clones, or exact copies of cells, or parts of DNAs.

It is believed that if medical scientists can grow organs of the human body, then they can use the same knowledge to regrow a complete human body and produce an exact genetic copy—a human clone.

However, despite this belief, there is a widely held opinion that human cloning hasn’t yet been achieved, despite many claims to the contrary.

The dawn of artificial cloning

The term “cloning” made lots of air waves and headlines in 1997 when Ian Wilmut (Roslin Institute of the University of Edinburgh) successfully cloned “Dolly the sheep”.

Wilmut was able to achieve this great feat by producing an exact genetic copy of an original sheep after taking a cell from it, extracting the DNA from its nucleus, and inserting the nucleus into an egg cell.

Not long after Wilmut’s achievement, many groups around the world followed his lead and cloned a wide variety of animals, including horses, cats, cattle, mice, goats, pigs, dogs, etc.

It’s on record that the first, second, and third generations of the clones exist.

What about human cloning?

Since artificial cloning started, there have been a number of reports and claims that human cloning has been successfully achieved.

On the other hand, other reports claim that any claims about success in human cloning are probably bogus claims which haven’t been proven yet.

If the statement in the previous paragraph is true—although we shouldn’t rely on it—then we can assume that no scientist has successfully cloned any primate, talk-less of a human being.

If human cloning has been successful, even though it hasn’t been authenticated, then what could be the spiritual implication for using such an unnatural process that doesn’t seem to emanate directly from GOD?

What would be the reaction of the world’s great religions? What would GOD feel about it—what, what, what?

What do religious/spiritual texts state?

If we observe the stories of creation in different religious texts, it is quite clear that GOD made just one path for human beings to procreate or produce offspring in the world: by sexual reproduction. This seems to be the only provision GOD made for souls/spirits and the animated parts of bodies (both human beings and animals) to incarnate here on Earth.

But we know that mankind always has a tendency to seek its own plan, which in many cases, is far apart from that of GOD and tends to be more self-destructive: in this regard, medical science might have already found another way to reproduce human beings through human cloning.

The skepticism surrounding human cloning

If judged by spiritual beliefs, skepticism will likely arise around cloning because it doesn’t give an answer whether souls or spirits animate the cloned bodies of organisms.

The soul or spirit, as we know it, is the invisible and immaterial essence that animates the physical bodies of human beings, and probably other organisms. The soul doesn’t seem to be created here on Earth.

And without a soul, no body wouldn’t be able to do anything.

Just like natural living bodies are full of life, successful clones are also full of life, and are as lively and animated as the complete body of the organisms they were cloned from.

But do the animated (spirit/soul) parts of clones come from human beings, or from GOD? Are they real or not? And who created such souls, if they really exist in the first place?

For sure, it’s already here, or it’s already on the way

One of the long-held dreams of certain medical scientists of the twenty-first century, is to create human beings from possible man-made processes.

Like we hinted earlier, it is either that human cloning has already been achieved, or it is yet to be achieved.

It’s possible that scientists have already achieved human cloning successfully, but are hiding evidence about it—for whatever reason(s) best known to them.

Regardless, doesn’t the spiritual implication look scary when it’s obvious mankind has been, or could be able to create new life forms—not through incantations, magic, or prayers, but through knowledge and advancements made in the field of medical science?

Should scientists mind what they seek for?

Although medical science has advanced tremendously, and it looks obvious that mankind has/would have an artificial process for reproducing life in an unnatural way—a way not provided by GOD—shouldn’t scientists mind what they wish for?

When we read the stories of GOD’s anger and wrath after fallen angels (who were not human) bore offsprings after mating with mankind, wouldn’t anyone tend to think that science could be erring greatly by discovering and using a process GOD did not design for mankind.

What could be the public’s view about human cloning?

If human cloning becomes possible to an appreciable degree, it might meet social obstacles. How well will it be accepted? Do people think that cloning people is a moral act? Is it ethical to clone fellow human beings?

My personal opinion is that many religions will oppose human cloning, in the same fashion that the Catholic Church opposed test tube babies back in 1978 when Louise Brown became the first baby in history to be conceived in a test tube.

If the public speaks up and rises against human cloning, then most governments would definitely pass laws to ban human cloning technology; or, at best (for scientists or proponents of human cloning), most governments could regulate human cloning with tight fists.

On the other hand, if human cloning is widely accepted, then at most, it’s likely that only few people would be clones, in just the same way that few natural clones exist in the form of identical twins and triplets—so the hype about human cloning might gradually wear off.

What is GOD’s opinion about the animated part (soul or soul-less?) of a clone?

With the knowledge we have about cloning, we know that many questions could spring up whenever the subject of GOD and human cloning are mentioned in any discussion. Questions like these could arise:

  • If human bodies are duplicated, will the spirits that animate the human bodies also be duplicated or cloned?
  • Will cloned human beings have a spiritual life? Will they be recognized by GOD?
  • If a human being is cloned, will it have any memory? (It has been widely reported that clones have no memory.)
  • Will cloned spirits have a record in GOD’s record book of human life on Earth?
  • Are the medical scientists who practice cloning distorting the true human image of GOD?

Thank you.

Human cloning is a topic that could be difficult to agree with, especially when religion and GOD are mentioned. That’s why any possible comments about your opinion(s) will be highly appreciated in the comment section.

Progressive enlightenment of mankind: Can mankind become a complete master of natural forces?

In the past ages, natural activities were relegated to the domain of “mysticism”

For countless ages in the past, mankind was a passive observer of nature’s forces and activities which once seemed to be locked in the domain of mysticism and spiritualism. Accounts of the belief systems of the earliest races of mankind show that people once marveled at unknown and unexplainable forces that caused changes in whether, lightning, movement of distant stars, etc.

In the distant past, the forces of nature and natural activities were shrouded in mystery, and were often feared and worshipped. In fact, the ancients assumed that natural activities were beyond human comprehension, and the lack of adequate understanding of natural forces made the ancients to create myths about gods in order to explain the natural activities that occurred around them.

In recent ages, natural activities have been accepted as natural, and are explained by natural laws

In contrast with the beliefs of the ancients, recent generations have witnessed brilliant people succeed in controlling and tweaking the forces of nature for the benefit of mankind. Hopefully, with the inspiring achievements of this age, mankind could soon become a complete master of nature in the future.

Many natural activities that were once thought to be controlled by divine, spiritual or mystical power, are now clearly understood due to in-depth knowledge of the theories behind the forces of nature. It’s been proven that most activities that were once considered mystical have always been natural since the beginning of time; and God who is the creator of these forces, made them to always adhere to certain rules which could be effectively controlled—yesterday, today and forever.

Activities, considered as mystical/spiritual in past ages, are now accepted as “natural”

In ages bygone, there were predominant mystical or spiritual influences of magicians, prophets, men of God, etc. In recent ages, we’ve had technological advancements that still look like magic, and could pretty well have been relegated to the realm of mysticism, witchcraft or sorcery ages ago.

Today, we have a solid understanding of the forces of nature, and unlike the ancients who lived in the dark ages of science and didn’t understand the forces of nature, we don’t believe that lightning bolts, environmental plagues, etc., are the handwork of any gods.

It’s true that scientific predictions would likely not always be exact, even though they’ve been authoritative, and most times correct because they clearly express and approximately quantify the forces of nature that drive the world—and probably the entire universe.

Each time the forces and laws of nature were thoroughly studied, understood and described, their applications have changed human history and the way mankind views natural activities that have been propelled by natural forces.

Three major forces of nature & their impacts

(1) The first force we’ll look at is the force of gravity

Isaac Newton was the first to give a natural and convincing explanation why objects move after being exerted by forces, rather than by the influence of some gods or mystical spirits. Newton’s insight contributed a lot to the success of the industrial revolution which came much later.

(2) The second force is electromagnetic force

This force lights our world up: think about a force that lights up our cities and powers all our appliances. When great scientists such as Michael Faraday, Thomas Edison and others gave insight which explained the effects of combining electricity and magnetism, a clear pathway was prepared for the electronic revolution which has been a home for the greatest scientific discoveries and wonders.

(3) The third force is nuclear force

During the 1930’s, and around the time the atom was split, Albert Einstein wrote down a famous equation (E = mc2) which made it possible—for the first time—for scientists to understand the forces that light up our world and the universe. This understanding revealed the secret behind the brilliant lights from the stars. Also, it led to creation of the power behind atomic weapons which have destroyed a lot of lives and property.

Important points that should be noted

Fortunately, with the efforts of the most brilliant minds, mankind now has a great understanding of these major forces—there could be quite a good number of others which we could consider as minor forces.

Gravity is now properly described by the theory of general relativity (note: some theories and predictions of general relativity differ significantly from those of classical physics which is the core of engineering principles), while electromagnetic and nuclear forces are well described by the quantum theory which has given insight into happenings in the invisible subatomic worlds. Unlike the industrial and electronic revolution, the quantum theory led to the creation of the laser, transistor, and the digital revolution which is one of the pillars of modern technology.

The secret behind the DNA molecule, which was unknown and mysterious in ages past, has been unlocked by scientist through an understanding of the quantum theory. Furthermore, this has created a firm foundation for biotechnological revolution and the successful alteration of natural genes. The result is that mankind is now much more capable of seeing what science and technology will be able to achieve in years to come.

What more should we expect?

As it has happened over recent years—even up to the present time—there will be more unexpected and completely new surprises that would leave mankind speechless and in great awe. One thing is sure: the theories behind natural forces, which were unknown to the ancients, but are now understood and used as drivers of modern science and technology, would likely not be altered—at least in the foreseeable future. However, we can agree that improvements could be made when necessary.

Summary

Mystic and so-called spiritual beliefs behind natural activities in past ages, are now clearly explained by natural laws. In ages to come, it wouldn’t be a surprise to see mankind become complete masters of nature and take total control of this God-given world—and probably some other worlds out there.

Probably, then and only then would tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, climate change, planet-destructive comets, and other negative and uncontrollable natural activities be subdued or even prevented. If this happens, mankind will be completely in-charge of the world in the way that God intended when he handed over dominion of the world to man in the beginning.

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Interstellar flight: will space scientists be able to reach & navigate between the stars?

Scientific assessment of the possibility for humans to inhabit other planets in future

Where are scientific & technological inventions taking us to? What more will be discovered in future?

Will mankind’s creation overpower mankind?— The future of AI (artificial intelligence)

The spiritual implication of human cloning: What could GOD’s perspective be?

Past events that disproved the impossible: one person’s impossibility is another person’s possibility

(Image credit: Pixabay.com.) In many areas of life, the study of things that were deemed “impossible”, actually opened up completely unexpected paths to greater human endeavors—especially in science and technology.

In many areas of life, the study of things that were deemed “impossible”, actually opened up completely unexpected domains in many human endeavors—especially science and technology.

Many events in recorded history have proven that what one person thought was “impossible”, was often regarded by another person as a “possibility”—actually, one person’s food is another person’s poison.

Past events that illustrate how people who studied the impossible, changed the course of the world

It is sad to note that there were times in the past when certain reputable media outlets, professional bodies and scientists lacked positivity and belief, and declared that a number of scientific and technological ideas were hopelessly impossible:

The New York Times

During the 1920s and 1930s, Robert Goddard, who has been regarded as the founder of modern design & operation, was severely criticized by people who believed that rockets would never travel in space—in fact, they disdainfully called his pursuit “Goddard’s Folly”.

An unforgettable incident occurred in 1921 when the then editors of “The New York Times” made a disgraceful statement against Dr. Goddard’s work: “Professor Goddard does not know the relation between action and reaction and the need to have something better than a vacuum against which to react. He seems to lack the basic knowledge ladled out daily in high schools”.

The editors believed it would be impossible to send rockets into space because there would be no air in space for rockets to push against.

Unfortunately for the unbelieving editors, there statements have been found to be misguided and worthless for over several decades after their unfair criticism and utterances.

Nineteenth century chemists

Chemists of the nineteenth century popularly declared that it would be impossible to find a substance—popularly known as “the philosopher’s stone”—that could turn lead into gold.

Back then, 19th century chemistry was based on the fundamental immutability of elements such as lead; fast forward to this generation and see the big difference because lead atoms can now be turned into gold.

Lord Kelvin

Lord Kelvin, who is widely regarded as a prominent physicist, declared that “heavier-than-air” devices such as aircraft, would not be able to fly; also, he assumed that X-rays were deceptive, a hoax, and that the idea of the “radio” would be fruitless and without a future.

It’s surprising to witness how much time has passed by, and yet all the things Kelvin thought were impossible, have become possible, and continue to remain so till date.

At the end of the nineteenth century, most scientists thought it was impossible for the Earth to be up to a billion years old. Lord Kelvin widely declared that molten Earth would take between 20 to 40 million years to cool down; his statement contradicted that of geologists/Darwinian biologists who claimed that the Earth could be up to a billion years old.

Finally, the impossible was proven to be possible after the discovery of nuclear force by Madame Curie and other scientists showed that if the center of the Earth is heated via radioactive decay, it could be kept in a molten state for billions of years—which the Earth’s age actually is.

Albert Einstein

Initially, in the 1930s, Albert Einstein believed it would be impossible to make an atomic bomb.

Atomic physicists had already known that there was an appreciable quantity of energy located deep within nuclei—in accordance with Einstein’s equation, E = mc2; however, they wrongly assumed that the energy in each nucleus was too insignificant to use in making an atomic bomb.

On the other hand, atomic physicist Leo Szilard remembered H. G. Wells prediction in a 1914 novel titled “The World Set Free”, in which Wells predicted the development of the atomic bomb.

According to the book, Wells believed that the secret behind the atomic bomb would be discovered by a physicist in 1933.

Fortunately for Szilard, after he came across Well’s book in 1932, it inspired him to develop an idea in 1933 by magnifying the power of a single atom through a chain reaction, so that the energy generated from splitting a single uranium nucleus could be magnified trillions of times, and employed in making the atomic bomb.

Szilard conducted more experiments and held secret negotiations with Einstein and then American President Franklin Roosevelt; this led to “The Manhattan Project” which was used to build the atomic bomb.

“Black holes” were once regarded as “science fiction”. In fact, Einstein wrote a paper in 1939 which “proved” that it would be impossible for black holes to be formed.

Yet, in the present-day, the Hubble Space Telescope and the Chandra X-ray telescope have proven the existence of thousands of black holes in outer space.

Stephen Hawking

The great cosmologist Stephen Hawking tried to discover a new law of physics that would prove that time travel is impossible—he called his idea “chronology protection conjecture”.

Unfortunately, after many years of research, he was unable to disprove time travel. In fact, contrary to his idea, physicists have demonstrated that a law which would prevent time travel is beyond present-day reality.

And because there is no law that can prevent the existence of time machines, physicists see the possibility to create time machines and do time travel in the near future.

Observation

Each person has the power to believe in all types of possibilities and not be affected by the negative beliefs and influences of faithless reputable media outlets, professional bodies, people, and even great scientists.

Conclusion

Knowledge is power: the reason why certain technologies were deemed impossible was due to the obvious fact that some basic laws of natural science were unknown; this created huge gaps in the understanding of science back in the day—no wonder many scientific and technological ideas were considered impossible.

Throughout history, time and time again, people who studied things that were deemed “impossible”, stretched and broadened the boundaries of science and life, and inspired other scientists to believe that anything is “possible”.

The ideas and technologies that are regarded as “impossible” in the present-day, will become possible in a few years, decades, or centuries into the future. 

You may like to read other related articles on faith and possibilities via the following links:

Faith: still strong enough to alter today’s facts

Faith: the superpower that materializes desires & gives new life to dying ambitions

Faith is stronger than experience—unfortunately, faith is not as cheap as experience

How faith comes, grows, and increasingly becomes stronger!

How to develop strong faith

How to influence your mind to attract your desires and a glorious afterlife

How to turn defeat into victory by experimenting with different things

The fight of faith: why give up when time comes to fight this important battle?

The type of faith that can deeply inspire you

There is magic in positive thinking—always think positively!

Your Outcome in Life Is Determined By What You Believe in: Faith or Fact

“Science fiction” is equal to “science” plus “faith”—today’s science fiction is tomorrow’s reality

(Image credit: Pixabay.com) If one compares past records of miraculous events in religious books with many events in so-called science fiction movies, there won’t be a great deal of difference to notice between the two; this is due to the fact that all of them radiate great faith that defies natural logic.

What task could be more difficult for a writer who lived before the times of the biblical characters, Moses and Joshua, to imagine and write about, than an epic tale of the Red Sea being divided for such a long period of time that multitudes of people passed through it without getting hurt?

Or, what could be more challenging for a writer who lived in a godless and scientifically-unknowledgeable era to do than to think and write about a tale of the Sun standing still (or was it actually the Earth’s movement around the Sun that was halted?) until one nation used its enormous light to see its enemies and defeat them all?

Moreover, what task would be more difficult for a writer who lived after Moses and Joshua (but before the time of Jesus) to think about and do, than to write about a person who could walk on water, turn water into wine, feed 5,000 people with only 5 loaves of bread, and also feed 4,000 people with only 7 loaves of bread—amongst other uncountable miraculous acts?

If one compares past records of miraculous events in religious texts with many stories in so-called science fiction movies, there won’t be a great deal of difference to notice between the two; this is due to the fact that all of them radiate great faith that defies natural logic.

If one removes the GOD-factor from the events in the Bible, and plays/acts them on screen, the “miracles” from Bible stories, and the scenes in science fiction movies, could both be easily married together and placed in the same boat called “fiction”.

In most cases, over the ages, it would have been noticed that science fiction movies—which show stories of “impossibilities”—actually foretell many future possibilities and realities that have been/are being worked upon by scientists.

And in the same vein that great events in the Bible and other religious texts defied logic, so do stories of science fiction writers defy logic as well, over and over again—but a number of events in their stories/writings do turn into reality.

So there seems to be no need for any assumption that science fiction movies are aimed at driving people’s imaginations wild, and influencing them to think about events that will never happen in future.

The only difference between the realities/possibilities in Bible, and the fictions/impossibilities in science fiction movies, is that the former have materialised, while the latter are yet to materialise.

Furthermore, the similarity between the realities/possibilities in the Bible, and the fictions/impossibilities in science fiction movies, is that after some time, they all materialised, or they will all materialise—generally speaking, whatever anybody thinks about and believes in, will materialise after some time.

If anyone who is actually in their right senses, conceives and believes in anything in their heart, then thoughts about “fiction” would never arise—and all things will be/are possible.

This will be quite easy to agree with/understand if one’s thoughts are in harmony with these words of faith that were uttered by Jesus Christ more than 2,000 years ago:

“For verily I say unto you, That ‘whosoever’ shall say unto this mountain, Be thou removed, and be thou cast into the sea; and shall not doubt in his heart, but shall believe that those things which he saith shall come to pass; he shall have ‘whatsoever’ he saith”.

With this statement, coupled with the greatness of its author, it might be unfair to label all written events as fiction, especially in cases where writers or authors didn’t have any intention for their utterances to be interpreted as such.

Examples of impossible scenes people often label as “fiction” in “science fiction” movies

Yes you can see people walking through walls in science fiction (sci-fi) movies.

And even though I haven’t watched a sci-fi movie in which someone walked on water, I believe that Jesus walked on water—and that he could have walked through walls if he decided to do just that.

But anyone might state that Jesus could walk on water because he’s more powerful than everyone—he is the Son of GOD. At this junction, it would help to remind us about how powerful Jesus thinks everyone is, when he made this same statement:

“For verily I say unto you, That ‘whosoever’ shall say unto this mountain, Be thou removed, and be thou cast into the sea; and shall not doubt in his heart, but shall believe that those things which he saith shall come to pass; he shall have “whatsoever” he saith”.

Also, in sci-fi (science fiction) movies you can see people building space-ships (or star-ships) that travel faster than the speed of light.

Yet again, in sci-fi (science fiction) movies you can see people reading other people’s minds, becoming invisible, moving objects with the power of their minds, and moving their bodies at a flash from one position to another distant one.

Furthermore, you can see invisible shields, cities hanging on the skies—and a host of other events that defy logic.

Just like many people were inspired by religious texts, many scientists were inspired by science fiction and became great scientists

The great astronomer Edwin Hubble was fascinated and inspired by the prophetic and futuristic works of Jules Verne which you can read a bit about in Prophets of technology, or prophets of GOD?.

Edwin Hubble was so deeply influenced by the works of Jules Verne, that he chose a career in science after he disobeyed his father’s wishes and abandoned a promising career in law—eventually, he became the greatest astronomer of the 20th century.

Carl Sagan, a recognized astronomer and bestselling author who got inspired to work in space science after reading Edgar Rice Burroughs’s “John Carter of Mars” novels—and like John Carter, Sagan dreamt of exploring not only Mars, but Venus as well.

A couple of other scientists drew inspiration from the lives of more than one individual writer.

Conclusion

If people have gotten so acquainted with miraculous tales in the Bible and other religious/spiritual texts, that they can’t notice that a bit of fiction might have existed before the great events recorded in the texts occurred, then there will continue to be a general notion that “science fiction” movies are just “fiction”, and will always remain false/fake.

By assuming every thought or written word is “fiction”, we could end up limiting ourselves if we’re really interested in achieving impossibilities, or making the impossible become possible.

As much as the GOD-factor is important in life, one has to add faith to the reality or science they believe in; whether any addition ends up producing results that could make people call it fiction or not, is another food for thought for another day.

In order to embrace the lifestyle of those who believe in impossibilities, people would have to grow up and look at fiction from a more positive perspective—regardless of profession and beliefs.

To make this easier, the practical things of life can be combined with having faith in a greater future.

Where are scientific & technological inventions taking us to? What more will be discovered in future?

(Image credit: Pixabay.) Where are scientific & technological inventions taking us to?

A visit to our ancestors

If it were possible to visit the past times in which our ancient ancestors actually existed, and inform them about the wonderful inventions and discoveries of the present times or age, we might be looked upon as powerful magicians—or as magicians of the ancient gods. Also, if our ancient ancestors were able to visit the present-day times, they might feel the same way.

Until the day mankind successfully produces and operates a time machine (which has been the dream of many fictionists, and the goal of many scientists), the concept of a “time machine” will remain among the impossible feats that many people believe mankind “will never be able to achieve”—as they always say. Remember the story about the Tower of Babel, right? From GOD’s response, almost everyone will believe that people can achieve whatever they set their hearts on.

The awe-inspiring paths of science

Although it’s not yet possible to travel back to the dark ages of our ancestors, we can still take a look at history and see the awesome scientific progression of science from the past to the present: now jet planes soar in the skies at will; rockets explore part of our solar system (The Milky Way), the moon and other planet; scanners give clear views of the inner part of the living body, and mobile phones keep us in contact with anyone in the world.

But this seems to be just the beginning: science is not static; its impact is still multiplying all around us

If it were possible to take count of the number of scientific articles that have been published, we’ll be shocked by the number of times the quantity of scientific information is multiplying every decade or so.

Discovery of new knowledge, innovations and inventions are modifying and changing all the political, economic, industrial and social platforms; also, it is either overturning old, reverenced and widely-held beliefs, or making other ones obsolete.

Where is this voyage of science & technology taking us to? What more will we be able to discover in future?

Can we picture what the world would look like in the year 2500, 2600, or so? By the year 2500, scientific and technological developments could have risen to such a level that people might think that mankind’s destiny is to become little controllers of the universe—little masters of the universe.

It is widely believed that ancient magicians and the ancient gods of past ages used magical tools, potions and  unknown spells to do great deeds and wonders; in the present and future ages, science and technology will use the faith and science behind AI (artificial intelligence), computers, nanotechnology, biotechnology, and most of all, the quantum theory, which is believed to be the foundation behind earlier technologies.

By the year 2500, will we be able to control the movement and positions of objects with the invisible power of our minds? Will electronics, phones and computers be able to read our thoughts and inner commands, and do what we want without any need to touch them?

With the advanced knowledge of biotechnology and medicine, will mankind be able to strengthen people’s bodies and extend their life spans? Will mankind be able to create forms of life that have never appeared on Earth before?

Unlike prophet Elijah and some of the ancient gods who were believed to have rode on fiery chariots, will mankind be able to soar the skies effortlessly in vehicles that don’t require the use of fuel? Will mankind be able to send space ships to nearby and distant planets, solar systems and galaxies?

Will mankind be able to discover and interact with other more intelligent forms of life that live outside our galaxy?

Possibilities abound because of past & present planted seeds of technology

Although it looks bleak and hopeless for many scientific dreams to turn into reality, the seeds of technology that have been planted support the possibility that anything imagined can be achieved—just anything. Faith, modern science and technology—not chanting and incantations—could give mankind the power to achieve anything.

But, once again, where are all these scientific & technological advancements leading us to?

Are they leading us to hell, heaven, or anything in between? What will be the final termination point of this amazing, unending and unpredictable voyage of science and technology?

What will be greatest and most unsurpassable transition in history?

What will mark the most distinct departure from past and present civilizations?

What is the limit that mankind won’t be able to go beyond?

Unless mankind succumbs to the evil forces of selfishness, stupidity and chaos—just like it plays around with nuclear energy—the greatest deeds that can be achieved are certainly inevitable.

You may like to read more futuristic articles through the following links:

Will mankind’s creation overpower mankind?— The future of AI (artificial intelligence)

Could saucer-shaped space-craft be the perfect fit for future interstellar flights?

Interstellar flight: will space scientists be able to reach & navigate between the stars?

Progressive enlightenment of mankind: Can mankind become a complete master of natural forces?

Scientific assessment of the possibility for humans to inhabit other planets in future

Prophets of technology, or prophets of GOD?

 

Prophets of technology, or prophets of GOD?

If we read the lifestyles of some people who have made great contributions to technology, but whose religious statuses have not been as pronounced as their contributions to technology, would we say such people were servants of technology, or materialism? In addition, if certain people have been able to foresee future technologies before they were produced to help mankind, would we say that such people are prophets of technology, or prophets of GOD?

Two great visionaries

Before we go further, let’s take a brief look at a part of the lives of 2 great people who are worthy of mention: Leonardo da Vinci, and Jules Verne—not to mention Nostradamus and many others who were more religiously inclined. For the average person, predicting what would happen in one or two years, is a difficult task; imagine how much more difficult it might be to predict what would happen in a century’s time from today.

Leonardo da Vinci and Jules Verne left behind evidence suggesting that irrespective of challenges faced by scientists, researchers, and our world as a whole, people who have love for humanity, could also have the power to divine technologies that would alter the fate of humanity in the near future.

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If anybody has the welfare of humanity in their heart, but doesn’t preach GOD the way we think they ought to, would we be right to say they are not messengers of GOD? Also, if anybody can divine the future, even though they can’t divine the so-called “things of GOD”, would we be right to say they are not prophets of God?

Usually, wherever the word “prophet” is pronounced, even if jokingly, there is often a sense of GOD-related fear and reverence attached to it. The word “prophet” has various definitions, but generally speaking, most people believe a prophet is sent by GOD (or a divine being), and for spiritual reasons rather than material or technological ones.

Leonardo da Vinci

Leonardo da Vinci was a scientist, painter, thinker, and a great visionary. During late fifteenth century (around 1400’s), he drew clear, well-detailed, and beautiful diagrams of technologies and machines that would fly in the skies 500 years ahead of the time they actually started flying. His drawings included helicopters, airplanes, parachutes, etc. As many of us would agree today, it’s possible that the flying machines da Vinci drew could have been constructed and made to fly during his generation—about 600 years ago.

Another astonishing fact is that during the 1950’s, a manuscript was discovered: it contained a sketch for a warrior automaton (machines with movable parts; they were programmed to carry out complex tasks) wearing a German-Italian armor; it could sit up and move its arms, neck, and jaw. This too, like many other of his sketches, was subsequently built, and actually worked. Many other works reveal that da Vinci was always forward-thinking—a major attribute of anyone who divines the future, and foresees the transformation of ideas into reality.

Jules Verne

Like Leonardo, Jules Verne had the ability to visualize the future, especially after interacting with some highly advanced and forward-thinking individuals of his time. In 1863, Verne—who was in reality, a great novelist—put pen to paper and wrote a prophetic novel called “Paris in the Twentieth Century”. In the novel, he forecasted what would happen in the coming century.

Unfortunately, the novel got missing, but was found when his great grandson came across it accidentally—when it had been lying in a safe for almost 130 years. After realizing that he had found treasure, he arranged for it to be published in 1994, and it became a best-seller.

Verne predicted that in 1960 Paris would have TV’s, air-conditioners, elevators, glass skyscrapers, fax machines, high-speed trains, gasoline-powered automobiles, fax machines, and even something resembling the internet.

In fact, with uncanny accuracy, Verne predicted most of the technologies in modern-day Paris. Many people have come to understand that his predictions were not a fluke because, in 1865 (about 2 years after 1863), he made another stunning prediction in which he gave precise details of a space mission that would send astronauts to the moon, more than 100 years before 1969 when it actually happened.

How possible was it for Jules to make accurate predictions 100 years before the actual time in future? Although we might not be able to answer that question, one thing is quite clear: Verne saw a very clear image of how science and technology would change civilization in the future and produce marvelous works—and he was spot-on and exact in doing so.

Were they prophets of technology, or prophets of GOD?

With the valuable amount of information regarding the prophetic insights of Leonardo da Vinci and Jules Verne, we would like to ask: is it possible to predict technological feats or world events that would occur in 2119, 2200, and thereafter? And most importantly, were da Vinci and Jules prophets of technology, or prophets of GOD?

Following the practices of da Vinci and Jules—penning ideas in the form of words and sketches—we believe that most of the world’s current leading scientists have the prophetic ability to fore-see future prototypes of technologies in their minds, and other brilliant ideas that will reshape our world and the future. In a way, the future is already here.

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The Reality of Invisible Worlds & Life: Physical & Spiritual

It’s a bit shocking that in the midst of all the astonishing scientific and technological knowledge that has been discovered/invented over the ages, confusion and disbelief still abound regarding the existence of other invisible or inaccessible parts of creation; there is also uncertainty as to whether human souls exist before and after physical death. Science and technology, which have helped in revealing that a lot of infinitesimal living things and particles that were once considered to be invisible, have both played a huge part in proving that everything, seen and unseen, is really alive—I mean REALLY ALIVE—and alive to such an extent that even those who don’t believe in invisible or “spiritual” life seem to be drawn or gradually drawing away from the abyss of their disbelief in invisibility or spirituality; now, nothing seems to be “that dead” or completely inexistent. Advances in science and technology have even made science-practicing atheists and other non-believers in God/spirituality have a rethink over their convictions which deny the existence of God, and a spiritual and greater part of creation.

For thousands of years, many religious leaders, believers in God, spiritualists and spiritual mediums have always sounded it out, wide and loud, that all the things we see with our physical eyes are simply the result of invisible or spiritual life which has its roots in an/the Almighty God—and they seem to have been right all along before the age of scientific and technological advancement started proving this belief bit by bit. It would do the world a lot of good if mankind could “harmonize” the “visible” life (here on Earth) with the invisible life (in the spiritual sphere) by cooperating with or properly using the spiritual power given by God, and which continues to permeate through all creation, in its seen and unseen parts. Happy will be the man who uses this spiritual power for good, but woeful will it be for the man who falls for the temptation to misuse it!

Evidences of invisible life

Countless instances have proven how greatly limited the capability of man’s physical eyes and brain are to see and perceive, respectively. The brain, like the physical body is limited to this physical world’s space and time and is not naturally able to see things beyond these limits. The human eyes are not even capable of seeing many “physical” things clearly. Take a look at a drop of water: in many instances, it appears to be neat, clean, and free from stain and blemish, but when viewed through magnifying lenses, the same water has been proven to contain millions of living organisms fighting and destroying each another.

Are there not innumerable bacilli in water and soil that have been found capable of causing lots of harm and destruction to human and animal bodies? Are bacilli not invisible to the unaided human eyes? Are there not energetic atoms and molecules in constant motion, but which are invisible to the human eyes? However, these atoms and molecules immediately become visible when substances are viewed under magnifying glasses. Who would be able to state that nothing new will be discovered or seen after existing physical equipments are further improved upon? Everyone would agree that if physical equipments are improved upon by 100-fold or 100,000-fold, other objects much smaller than bacilli and atoms of elements would also multiply in size and become viewable. More unseen worlds would become visible and unfold before the naked human eyes; even time travel, which has remained in the domain of fiction, could become a natural reality, and be pushed into the domain of non-fiction. Logically, it can be inferred that the discovery of more unseen objects and worlds by science and technology would continue until “mysterious” or “spiritual” things become natural to man.

The reality of a spiritual world, and life after death

If we believe in the possibility of the invisible or spiritual world continuously unfolding before the eyes of mankind, we might want to ask: what is the next world or next life to come? What is life after physical death? Many people seem to be confused when they hear: “the next world”. “The next world” could be considered as the world after death, or physical and spiritual objects or life that can’t be seen or perceived by our brains, ears, eyes and other senses that belong to our physical bodies. The next world is beyond the detection of our physical senses. From the perspective of viewing bacilli, atoms and molecules, without considering many other forms of “life”, we would readily agree that there is no “cloak” or “wall” dividing this physical world and the unseen/spiritual world: there is no gulf. All creation and everything in it is interwoven and unified. There is nothing like “this world” and “that world”; rather, there is one uniform existence just like it was in the days when God conversed more often with mankind than today.

The concept of “this world” and “that world” or “the next world” arose probably due to mankind’s inability to see everything, visible and invisible. Probably this might be due to the fact that man looks upon himself as the center of importance in all creation, and also because he cannot see the invisible organisms, invisible atoms, invisible angels, invisible nature spirits, invisible devils, invisible heavens, etc.; invisible organisms and atoms were revealed by science, while angels, spirits and demons have been perceived by laypeople who possess sharp spiritual senses. In holding a wrong perception of the invisible world, it might be agreed that man has forcibly hindered his own spiritual progress. We would likely be on a better eternal path if we look at the different parts of creation (seen and unseen) as a single unit, and not try to draw a distinction between “this world” and “the next world”.

Matter, atoms & quantum energy: why are they completely under the control of those who are spiritually minded?

(Image credit: Pixabay.com.) All matter/material things, regardless of size, have essentially the same material—the only difference is in the number of protons or electrons…knowledge about atoms could help modern science understand why matter can be partially or completely controlled by spiritually minded people.

Throughout history there has been a lot of fascination about how spiritually minded people easily control matter/material things without having to go through all the rigors that science and materially minded people usually go through.

People tend to think that matter (for example: the human body, and all material things) and spirit are two different entities that don’t usually have a great connection.

This has been the mindset of most people who are ignorant about the powerful abilities of the human spirit.

Nevertheless, matter and spirit are much more connected than has been assumed. In fact, there is ample evidence that human thoughts can influence the morphology of the human body, and other material things too.

Those who are in control of their spirit have always known this, and have been using their knowledge to control material things and affairs much more easily in the world of matter.

The spiritually minded often achieve a lot of things without using the enormous amount of physical materials, effort and time that science usually employs to achieve the same things.

Listed below are just a few things that spiritually minded people do without wasting any material resources—human, or otherwise:

  • healing people from far distances; or healing nearby by laying hands.
  • control of blood pressure and body temperature—to the astonishment of medical doctors.
  • levitation, and control of natural forces.
  • etc.—too many to mention.

The one thing that can be noticed in all these activities is that each of them consists of matter, invisible atoms, and some degree or quantity of what science calls “quantum energy”.

A brief look at invisible atoms, matter & quantum energy

Science tells us that atoms consist of positive and negative subatomic particles of force or energy called protons and electrons, respectively.

Protons and electrons (which are restless, never static, dynamic) pulsate with life, and contain whirling bits of energy that many people could consider to be a bit more spiritual than material!

Each matter/material thing consists of atoms which in turn consist of a number of protons and electrons; throughout the ages, it seems real spiritually minded people always knew about this, and probably saw protons and electrons.

The quantum energy in atoms or matter is in discrete (separate: distinct) packs of energy also known as minimum energy, which is the value of “physical property” involved in any “interaction”.

Note the term and word, “physical property” and “interaction”, respectively; quantum energy is involved in interactions.

One of the stand-out features of quantum energy is “entanglement”, which is a description of particles that are mysteriously linked with other particles regardless of their distances apart.

Some research groups have succeeded in entangling not just a few particles, but also different clouds of thousands of atoms.

Entangled particles share properties in such a way that makes them depend on each other even when they are separated by very long distances.

Albert Einstein famously called entanglement “spooky [mysterious: supernatural] action at a distance”. Why? Because when one particle is altered, it affects other particles instantaneously.

Generally, if we look at science’s point of view, all matter (water, mountains, environment, etc.), regardless of size, consists of essentially the same material; the only difference is in the number of protons or electrons each matter consists of.

Science regards atoms as the ultimate thing behind all forms of matter, irrespective of how big or small they are.

Human bodies and everything in the material world are believed to consist of atoms: infinitesimal and indestructible particles of matter that are too small to be seen or touched.

Atoms have two charged particles; both of them are electrical in nature: one is negative electricity (the tiny particle called “electron” which fans of radio are familiar with), while the other one is positive electricity (the tiny particle called “proton”).

Also, chemical compounds are built from protons and electrons. Lead, iron, oxygen, silver, gold and other elements only differ from one another in terms of the number and arrangement of electrons and protons each of them comprises of.

The thing to note is this: soil, oceans, mountains, rocks and everything can be broken down into particles that are indivisible and invisible—a bit short of what we may call “purely spiritual”.

Conclusion

With all the great discoveries and inventions, modern science might finally come to understand that what we call matter consists of energetic particles that can be partially or completely controlled by spiritually minded people who tend to have varying degrees of influence on spirit.

Contrary to what most people think—especially those who are way off the spiritual path—most forms of matter cannot be controlled or influenced by the use of the five physical human senses, scientific experiments and laboratory apparatus.

In the future, science will likely discover that invisible quantum energy is more subject to spiritual power and spiritual laws, which by their nature, find it easy to manipulate atoms and matter, and make anything possible regardless of how great it could look.

We might not be far away from the truth if we safely assume that those who live in the spirit automatically reside in the domain where invisible atoms and quantum energy can be easily influenced and controlled.

The signs are in every invention and great deed! With enlightenment permeating everywhere, mankind seems to be getting closer and closer to having complete understanding and conviction about what Jesus said about 2,000 years ago:

  • “if you have faith (what may be called “control”) as little as a grain of mustard seed,you will say to this mountain, ‘move from here to there’, and it will move, and nothing will be impossible for you.”

The most powerful forces in the material world are the invisible ones such as heat, light, air, electricity; so also, the most powerful force that lords it over the material and invisible spiritual world is the spirit which directs both mind and thoughts.

And just as the forces in the material world can fuse many physical objects, so also can the spirit fuse matter and invisible quantum energy—and even destinies.

Reality is what you choose it to be. Reality is what you make it!

What religious texts & science say about the existence of other intelligent physical beings out there in the universe

(Image credit: Pixabay.com.) Over the ages, and until recently, research always concentrated on this physical world, and gave laudatory remarks that planet Earth is the ideal planet…with strong statements from religious texts and scientific stats, it would be difficult to argue against any notion that physical life and intelligent beings are out there in other parts of the observable universe.

Many people are fascinated by the possible existence of extra-terrestrial life, especially human-like physical beings outside the borders of the Earth.

On one side there are people who are sure about the past or present existence of spiritual beings such as Angels, Archangels, Cherubims, Elders (the great ones who reside at GOD’s throne), divine spirits, nature spirits, human spirits, demons, etc.

On the other side there are people, especially scientists, who are not yet sure, or do not have concrete evidence of the existence of physical beings on other planets—especially planets that are as physical as the Earth.

Are there intelligent physical beings living on other physical planets in the universe? Moreover, if they exist, do they know about mankind? Have they been watching mankind and the Earth evolve/develop over the ages?

In some religious texts, we read about either spiritual or physical beings that have been referred to as: The Guardians of the Earth; The Watchers; sons of GOD; gods. Whoever they really were, they come with different names, and have appeared to different people at different times in the past.

But when it comes to the possible existence of intelligent physical beings in the cosmos, it seems science hasn’t yet found concrete evidence.

On the other hand, science has important information and data that point to likely existence of other human-like physical beings out there in the boundless expanse of the observable universe—the part of the universe that has been visible to mankind via exploratory probes and space-based telescopes.

So, is there life on other planets in the observable universe?

What do religious texts say?

Most religious texts (like the Bible) don’t state precisely whether life exists on other planets. They simply state that God created the heavens and Earth, and put man on the Earth control its affairs.

However, lack of details on the subject does not imply that the Earth is the only planet that has life and physical beings on it. But then, this doesn’t mean there are physical beings and other forms of life out there in the universe.

Apart from the statement in Genesis 1:1 that GOD created the Heavens and the Earth, the Bible also makes a profound statement in Colossians 1:16–17 regarding the possible existence of other types of physical life: “For through him (GOD) were all things created, that are in heaven, and that are on/in the Earth, visible and invisible, whether they be thrones, or dominions, or principalities, or powers: all things were created by him, and for him; And he was in existence before all things, and all things originated through him”—yes, GOD is that mighty!

And no matter how powerful and influential any supposed spiritual or physical beings are in the universe—whether they live in other worlds, or on other planets—GOD created all of them—and it is to him that all the wonders of the universe (including mankind’s advancements and discoveries) should be attributed to.

Another Bible verse better expresses the possibility of physical life in other parts of the universe; Deuteronomy 4:19 states: “And in case you lift up your eyes to heaven and see the sun, the moon, the stars, even all the host of heaven, do not worship them, and serve them…”.

In case mankind discovers other intelligent physical beings on other star systems, it should not worship them, no matter how powerful they may be.

These 2 Bible verses we just quoted simply inform us about the possible existence of either spiritual and physical beings on other star system or worlds which we can only view (albeit partially) from afar with our eyes at night; or which scientists have been able to see partially with the aid of magnifying telescopes or lenses.

What does science say?— scientific stats

Although the existence of other physical beings on other planets has not yet been proven, many scientists believe that life evolved on this Earth, and it could have evolved on other planets, or in other worlds too; if scientists discover or prove the existence of other forms of physical life and beings on other planets, these beliefs will be finally confirmed.

According to many astronomers, the naked human eye can see about 4,500 stars on a clear bright night. And according to science, it is possible view almost 2 million stars via telescopes that make small observatories—in fact, modern reflecting telescopes bring light from thousands and millions of stars in our galaxy (The Milky Way, in which this planet Earth belongs) much closer to human view.

But when such big numbers are compared to the trillions of stars in the immeasurable vastness of the observable universe, they become very small or tiny.

Why? Because the Milky Way galaxy, which is just one out of the trillions of other galaxies, contains between 100 and 400 million stars, and more than 100 billion planets within a radius (distance) of 1½ million light-years—this is equal to 14 quintillion kilometers = 14,000,000,000,000,000,000 kilometers, or 14 × 1018 kilometers. This information is about just 1 galaxy.

Meanwhile, research that was revised in 2016 informs us that the number of galaxies in the observable universe is around 2 trillion (i.e., 2 × 1012) or more.

So, if any number between 100 and 400 million is multiplied by 2 × 1012, one would have a faint idea about the number of stars and planets in the observable universe.

In fact, is widely believed by knowledgeable people that the universe contains more stars than all the grains of sand on planet Earth.

But, what is a light-year? Why aren’t the distances in space measured in meters, kilometers, or miles?

The “light-year” is a unit of distance, which is the distance travelled by light during 1 year. Generally, light is known to travel at a speed of approximately 300,000 kilometers per second (km/s).

So in a year, light can travel for a total distance of about: 300,000 km/s × 60 × 60 × 24 × 365 seconds = 9.461 × 1012 kilometers = 9.461 trillion kilometers; which is around 9,500,000,000,000 kilometers—this is the approximate distance travelled by light in only 1 year.

But why does science use such a large number as a unit of distance?

Well, on Earth, units of distance such as kilometers and miles might be adequate or easier to use in making descriptions.

We all know that it’s easy to type or write the distance between Rosario (Argentina) and Xinghua (China), which is just 19,996 kilometers; also, it would be easy type or write the distance between Marbella (Spain) and Auckland (New Zealand), which is about 19,960 kilometers.

But it would be difficult to always type or write large numbers associated with distances in the vastness of the observable universe.

The thing is that if we consider the distances between the farthest cities apart, and the distances between stars and planets in the observable universe, we would appreciate the use of “light-year” when typing or writing numerical distances that are out of this world.

The “kilometer” is quite small and not so easy to use when making reference to distances in the universe.

For example, the distance between our galaxy and the nearest galaxy (Andromeda Galaxy) is about 2.5 million light-years, which is about 21 quintillion kilometers; that’s 21,000,000,000,000,000,000 kilometers = 21 × 1018 kilometers.

Numbers like this are so large that they make it difficult to always write and interpret. So astronomers use other units of distance such as the light-year, which is approximately equal to 9,500,000,000,000 kilometers.

The astronomer Harlow Shapley once estimated that there are some 100 quintillion (or 1020) stars within the range of man-made telescopes, which have distances of many light-years between them.

Observation

Religious texts provide adequate evidence that could satisfy the curiosity of those who are spiritual and need little or no other physical evidence that physical life and intelligent beings exist on other planets, or in other visible or invisible worlds.

On the other hand, scientific studies and stats have proven the existence of atmospheric gases, gravity, flora, and possibly fauna on other planets; it is believed that these conditions can favor the existence of life because they are somewhat similar to the conditions we have here on Earth.

Would life and physical beings be able to exist on other planets just because such planets have life-supporting conditions similar to those of the Earth?

Scientific research has squashed the belief or notion that life and physical beings can only exist on other planets if the conditions of other planets are similar to conditions of this world (planet Earth).

It is a great error to believe that life cannot exist without water and oxygen? Even here on Earth, there are life forms that don’t need oxygen to live—they are called anaerobic bacteria; in fact, oxygen is poisonous to them.

Over the ages, and until a couple of decades ago, research always concentrated on this physical world, and gave laudatory remarks that planet Earth is the ideal planet—but this seems to have been wrong.

Everybody talks about oxygen. Why shouldn’t other forms (probably higher) of life be able to exist without oxygen?

Conclusion

With strong statements from religious texts and scientific stats, it would be difficult to argue against any presumed notion that physical life and intelligent beings are out there in other parts of the observable universe.

Investigations are still going on in many parts of the world, and it is highly probable that the life forms that haven’t been discovered or conceived today, might be discovered by future generations.

Even if we won’t be there to witness it, the world would have to accept the fact then, which had been written a long time ago, as stated in Deuteronomy 4:19: “And in case you lift up eyes to the heavens, and see…even all the host of heaven…do not worship and serve them”.

So, it’s quite clear that mankind or science might discover other hosts in the upper parts of the universe.

Destruction of scientific knowledge: past events that made it difficult for science to be easily accepted in future

(Image credit: Shutterstock.com.) Although the Earth was created about 4 billion years ago, there is considerably a less amount of past scientific knowledge available, and there are obvious reasons—the chief among them are the past incidences of destruction…on the other hand, facts still exist, and won’t cease to, no matter how much they have lost significance and attention.

Although the Earth was created about 4 billion years ago, as reported by science, the sum total of available scientific knowledge that was present in the past, is much less available today than it was ages ago—and there are obvious reasons.

The ancient artifacts and manuscripts that have been found in different parts of the world, give valuable information about the scientific knowledge that was put to use in the past, and how successive generations used it, developed it further, and passed it on.

Over the ages it became increasingly difficult for successive generations to accept science because of interference from either religious or political “powers”, and some cataclysmic/destructive incidences that took place in remote ages and led to loss of belief in science, and loss of scientific knowledge/manuscripts.

Even when scientific knowledge was destroyed (or was often ignored, or regarded as myths), either due to the occurrence of cataclysms, or circulating belief that they were heretic, evidence of their existence still continued  to exist in one form or another.

By digging up artifacts and manuscripts from various levels deep within the ground, to using radiocarbon dating and remote sensing techniques, archaeologists and seekers of knowledge would have certainly been able to see breaks in dissemination of scientific knowledge; the breaks have likely hampered the acceptance and development of science and technology in the future, especially after past incidences of destruction!

Information acquired during the ages, along with artifacts and manuscripts that have been discovered on the face of the Earth (rather than underground) have revealed several attempts in the past to destroy scientific knowledge which seeks to make nature more understandable to everybody.

Even when scientific knowledge wasn’t buried, it still faced several attempts to be destroyed. Recall that about 400 years ago, late Galileo Galilei (who was a devout Catholic and one of the founders of modern science) suffered persecution at the hands of the Roman Catholic Church because of his steadfast belief and proclamation that the Earth revolves round the sun.

In October, 1992, Pope John Paul II had to apologize to Galileo Galilei for the ill-treatment he suffered in the hands of the Church because of his insistence that the Earth moves round the sun.

Funny enough, Galileo Galilei’s theory has been proven beyond doubt, and is widely being accepted and respected.

Before we take a brief look at incidences in the past when artifacts and manuscripts of scientific knowledge were destroyed, let us bear this thought in mind: although the creators of ancient scientific knowledge have disappeared, and many of their works seem to have been destroyed, the remaining traces of their works will continue to challenge and inspire future generations of mankind.

Past destruction of scientific knowledge

Ancient scientific knowledge was destroyed in the past, most likely because—apart from cataclysms— science was not as understood and accepted as it is today. Just probably!

In the present-day, it’s quite obvious that science and religion are much friendlier and closer allies than they were centuries ago when religion fought and nagged at science.

At one end, our expectations from the universe have been pushed forward into the future; on the other end, we are now in a position to go back into distant past histories that belong to certain regions or countries of the world, and get a glimpse at what went wrong during the times scientific knowledge was stored in certain locations around the world—in this regard, many researchers and archaeologists have been helping us to do just that.

Atlantis

Atlantis is said to have had a highly advanced scientific and technological culture located on an island now believed to be at the bottom of the Atlantic Ocean. Yes, at the very bottom!

Although Atlantis is believed to have existed for over 200,000 years, its final phase is said to have occurred during a dark period between 17,500 BC, and 10,500 BC when it was destroyed.

Furthermore, it’s believed that the golden period of Atlantis was the highest level of light consciousness and technological advancement to have ever been achieved on Earth, and in any advanced civilization.

Atlantis has been mentioned in many ancient texts, and is believed to have been swallowed by an earthquake—a natural disaster or catastrophe.

Atlantis is also mentioned in Plato’s dialogues (taken from ancient Egyptian records), and almost every ancient culture in the world has myths and legends of ancient worlds (or civilizations) that had vast scientific knowledge in their possession long before natural or man-made activities destroyed them.

In fact the Hopis, Mayans and Aztecs believed that four or more worlds underwent destruction before our own started some few thousands of years ago.

Although details are far-fetched and sketchy, findings from land and sea point to the possible existence of Atlantis in the remote past.

The stories of ancient high tech civilizations that have come and gone are contained in thousands of books that were kept in ancient libraries around the world in the past and present-day.

Many ancient libraries contained a lot of scientific books that were famous among historians and writers—the library at Alexandria, Egypt, is a very popular example.

Sadly, it is a well-known fact that throughout history, certain enemies or powers purposely destroyed huge archives and libraries containing astounding scientific knowledge of the ancient times.

According to famous astronomer, Carl Sagan, a book titled “The True History of Mankind Over the Last 200,000 Years”, once existed and was kept in the great library in Alexandria, Egypt. Unfortunately, the book, along with thousands of others, was burnt by fanatical Christians in 300 AD because they thought the books were full of heresy.

China

Most of the ancient Chinese manuscripts that contained profound scientific knowledge were destroyed in 212 BC by Emperor Chi Huang Ti—the leader who ensured that the famous Great Wall was built.

Vast amounts of ancient texts—which contained mostly science, philosophy, and history—were forcefully seized and burnt; also, libraries, including the royal library, were destroyed.

Fortunately enough, some books survived because certain people who had thirst and love for scientific and philosophical knowledge hid them in different locations, underground and in caves.

Many other books and manuscripts were hidden in Taoist temples where they have been kept and preserved ever since.

Egypt

The great library in Alexandria was one of the largest and most significant libraries in the ancient world; it housed certain types of scientific knowledge that were believed to have originated from outside the world by the ancient gods who visited the Earth from the cosmos, but have long since faded from the face of the Earth.

During the destruction of the library in Alexandria, a great mathematician and philosopher, Hypatia, was dragged from her chariot by a mob and torn to pieces. The mob went ahead to burn the library.

Hypatia—the first mathematician whose life was well documented—was a prominent thinker of the Neoplatonic school in Alexandria where she taught philosophy and astronomy about 1,600 years ago.

Observation

It is sad to recall the destruction and suppression of useful scientific knowledge that was recorded in the distant past, especially within the last 2,000 years.

What is even more painful is the fact that the destruction of scientific knowledge by mankind was done in a zealous manner and without due regard to reality, life, or beliefs.

In the midst of all destruction and suppression, it’s astonishing to still see a few ancient texts here and there, that have survived and contain scientific information about highly advanced civilizations, and the cataclysms that destroyed them.

Also, most of the texts have a major lesson for us: in the distant past, mankind fell out of harmony with Mother Nature, and a certain catastrophes struck the whole Earth.

In the present day, we can see something similar between the ancient Atlantis myth (or reality?) and the current situation that modern mankind finds itself in.

Will modern mankind survive the impact of its own technology, environmental pollution, and wars?

Will mankind destroy itself as it continuously alters the natural functioning of the Earth, and uses destructive practices to cause disharmony on the Earth?

Conclusion

Even though science has been much more widely accepted in the present-day than in the past, it was/has been difficult for future generations (after past destructions or cataclysms of scientific knowledge) to accept science.

The major reason was the repeated break-ups in dissemination of knowledge to future generations; this  was caused by past destruction of scientific knowledge after cataclysms had occurred, and interference of different powers in the progress and sustenance of scientific knowledge—especially in places where the mystery behind science painted it as black magic, sorcery, or witchcraft.

Scientific assessment of the possibility for humans to inhabit other planets in future

(Image credit: Pixabay.com.) The achievements of science and technology in space have proven that immense possibilities lie ahead…although the habitation of other planets can be speeded up by more research and improvement of modern technology, only distant future generations might witness humans inhabit other planets.

It seems to have been on the road for a very long time: the plans and efforts of science in the past always seemed to turn into realities in the future. Evidence has been too glaring, and to such an extent that it seems most scientific ideas always turn into realities.

Centuries ago, if one had lived in the midst of people who could hardly believe that one day humans would be able to travel through air (rather than land and sea which were the usual routes) to other countries and parts of the world in future, one would likely be less confident to talk about the possibility for mankind to travel to other planets and inhabit them.

In this age when science continues to understand and conquer the Earth, and concentrates more on other planets in our solar system, one would be more confident to talk about the possibility of exploring other planets and inhabiting them.

While this idea of travelling to other planets and inhabiting them sounds awesome and fantastic, it could be frowned upon by religious fanatics who look upon certain ideas and actions of mankind and science as either “impossible”, “weird”, “abominable”, or even “crazy”—this can be quite annoying, especially when most religious people who believe in GOD are well-informed about the extent to which anything is possible.

This brings to mind, one of the greatest statements to have ever been uttered by a great envoy of GOD: “For verily I say unto you, That ‘whosoever’ shall say unto this mountain, Be thou removed, and be thou cast into the sea; and shall not doubt in his heart, but shall believe that those things which he saith shall come to pass; he shall have ‘whatsoever’ he saith”—Jesus Christ.

Take note of the words “whosoever” and “whatsoever”—these words are boundless and not only applicable to those who belong to certain religious groups, or other types of belief systems.

On the other hand, the statement from the great envoy of GOD could prompt some big questions:

  • did GOD create the universe and expect mankind to remain on the Earth, and be active only on it?
  • can other parts of the solar system be used by mankind, just as the Earth has been used?
  • would GOD approve of people being taken from Earth to other planets, stars, or solar systems?
  • would it be an abomination for mankind to inhabit other planets—especially in the event that inhabiting other planets becomes reasonable and justifiable?
  • would mankind be going beyond the limits destined for it if it inhabits other planets?
  • etc.

A recall of the first achievement in space exploration

Each good combination of science and technology has yielded a wonderful result: on July 20, 1969, at 03:00 hours, 56 minutes and 20 seconds, Central European Time, hundreds of millions of people witnessed 2 astronauts, Neil Alden Armstrong and Edwin E. Aldrin, become the first men to successfully set foot on the moon.

In my opinion, this is the most significant achievement in space science and travel because it astonished humanity, enlightened people about great possibilities, and inspired/led to other achievements that followed thereafter.

On the other hand, while mankind was excited about the successful flight to the moon, science was busy occupying itself with exploratory flights to planets such as Mars and Venus.

Venus had been undergoing investigation using unmanned sondes (equipment that send information about their environments) in the same vein that the successful landing on the moon began with investigations using unmanned satellites.

On May 18, 1969, Russia (Moscow) reported that after 130 days, the “Venus sonde 5” ended its journey; also, it covered a distance of 156.25 million miles, and carried weights that summed up to 2,260 pounds.

Have there been attempts to assess the suitability of other planets for human habitation?

Russian and American experiments were conducted in the past in order to assess the suitability of other planets for human habitation—how suitable other planets could be for human habitation.

Late Professors Carl Sagan (Harvard, U.S.A.) and Dmitry Martynov (Sternberg Institute, Russia) both did research work in similar/related areas. Their intention was to assess the suitability of Venus for human habitation, and conquer it.

During laboratory research, they acquired reconnaissance reports from the American Mariner and the Russian Venus sondes (equipment that provide information about their environments).

On 6 June, 1969, the Telegraph Agency of the Soviet Union (TASS) estimated that the surface temperature of Venus varies between 400ºC and 530ºC.

This estimate was almost the same with the one reported in 1967 from the “American Mariner V” which radioed/messaged back a temperature of 480ºC and atmospheric pressure between 50 bars and 70 bars—roughly the pressure that exists 900 meters (3000 feet) under water on Earth.

Russia received details from the sondes which made successful soft landings. Generally, information states that the atmosphere on Venus has carbon dioxide content between 93% and 97%, nitrogen between 2% and 5%, and oxygen between 0% and 4%—these data are highly valuable information.

Carl Sagan published his ideas in a scientific periodical that has the enviable and honorable reputation of publishing only research work that has been thoroughly examined.

What conditions would make it possible for humans to inhabit/live on Venus?

Before his death, Sagan believed that in the near future, space-craft could be used to release thousands of tons of blue algae into Venus’ atmosphere, and blow them towards Venus’ surface.

The advantage of using blue algae is that they stay alive at high temperatures and reduce high proportions of carbon dioxide by using their metabolism; because of their ability to continuously and steadily reduce carbon dioxide, surface temperatures would gradually fall below 100ºC.

Furthermore, with the aid of light and water, carbon dioxide could be transformed into oxygen; with temperature lowered below 100ºC, there would be enough water vapor in the atmosphere that could cause rain-fall and subsequent flooding. The availability of enough water (owing to the flood), in combination with light, oxygen and water would be able to support life.

Observation

With the Earth behaving more unnatural and fast becoming uncomfortable due to man-made activities which are spinning out of control, scientists would have been assessing the suitability of other planets, and the possibility for humans to inhabit them—especially if the unexpected is likely to occur.

Conclusion

Although habitation of other planets can be speeded up by more research and improvement of modern space technology, only distant future generations might witness humans inhabit other planets.

The past achievements of science and technology in space have proven that great possibilities lie ahead, and ongoing research will likely lead to success which could be greeted with negative reactions from religious communities and critics.

Could saucer-shaped space-craft be the perfect fit for future interstellar flights?

(Image credit: Shutterstock.com.) Could the best shape for interstellar flight be the saucer? Although the current crop of space-craft (rockets) have proven themselves technically to a great extent, one could still wonder whether the uncountable (but unproven?) number of saucer-shaped UFO sightings present mankind and science with a better idea for better exploration in deep space—one worth studying and learning from.

When we discussed the possibility of interstellar flight, and asked whether space scientists will be able to reach and navigate between the stars in future, we noted that, in 1797, after Leonardo da Vinci’s sketches of heavy-looking flying objects were published, many people reacted negatively by stating that machines that would be constructed in accordance with the dimensions/specifications of the sketches, would never be able to leave the ground and fly through the atmosphere.

We further noted that even though many people thought it would be impossible for heavy machines to fly over long distances—yet—hundreds of years later, aeroplanes have been carrying large quantities of weights over long distances, across land and sea areas that cover thousands of square miles.

In terms of flying, the aeronautical industry and space scientists have conquered the Earth’s atmosphere, gone a step further beyond the highest height of the Earth’s atmosphere, and even landed on the moon.

The predominant thought now would be on how to reach other planets, worlds, stars and galaxies that are either near, or far away.

Which shape of space-craft is commonly being used today? Does the shape of space-craft matter?

Yes, the shape of space-craft matters a lot, and could determine whether deep space exploration will be smoother/more possible, or not; that aside, the major types of rockets in use today are pencil-shaped (and nose-coned).

Although the current crop of space-craft (rockets) have proven themselves technically, to a great extent, one could still wonder whether the uncountable (but unproven?) number of saucer-shaped UFO sightings present mankind and science with a better idea for smoother space exploration—one that is worth studying, and learning from. Could the best shape for interstellar flight be the saucer?

But first, what is an unidentified flying object (UFO)

An unidentified flying object (UFO) is an object that is usually observed flying in the sky, but which is unidentified. Although reports of UFO sightings abound, some were confirmed to be conventional objects or phenomena which initially appeared to be “unidentified”.

The term “UFO” was coined in 1953 by the United States Air Force (USAF), and defined as “any airborne object which by performance, aerodynamic characteristics, or unusual features, does not conform to any presently known aircraft or missile type, or which cannot be positively identified as a familiar object.”

Due to increasing spate of incidences (some, too convincing to argue against) between late 1940s, and 1950s, the term “UFO” became more widespread, and UFOs were popularly called “flying saucers” or “flying discs”.

Generally speaking, due to a significant number of UFO sightings over the past 100 years or so, the term “UFO” has been widely used to refer to extra-terrestrial space-craft: space-craft not designed by human beings, or space-craft originating from outside the borders of the Earth.

The saucer has been the most widely reported shape seen during UFO sightings

At the moment, there isn’t concrete evidence other beings or aliens have travelled from other stars and galaxies to Earth; on the other hand, many people and intelligence organizations know that the most popular shape of UFOs from reports, is the saucer—that’s why UFO/UFO space-craft have been popularly called “flying saucers” or “flying discs”.

With open and hidden information regarding UFOs, it wouldn’t be surprising to find out that space scientists have already assessed the possibility of designing saucer-shaped space-craft for future interstellar exploration.

If successfully designed, would saucer-shaped space-craft be able to out-perform pencil-shaped space-craft, and go deeper into outer space?

If UFOs really exist, then their domain for flying and predominant activity should be in outer space, in the incalculable and boundless expanse of the widely unknown cosmos.

For whatever reason, UFOs might have taken trips to Earth and other stars for a reason, or just for the sake of leisure. Investigations involving UFOs have convinced many people and scientists that extra-terrestrial space-craft, especially saucer-shaped ones have been coming to Earth for several decades, centuries, or even thousands of years.

Considering the views in preceding paragraphs, it wouldn’t be difficult to sense that a saucer-shaped space-craft could likely out-perform pencil- and nose-coned ones in terms of traveling far beyond the sun, moon and planets of our solar system.

But there could be questions

  • if space scientists wish to travel to other planets and galaxies in outer space, wouldn’t it be wise to give the saucer shape a try?
  • would man-made flying saucers be able to spin at high speeds the way UFO space-craft have been presumed to spin?
  • would saucer-shaped space-craft (which look like flat circular plates) be able to deflect debris in outer space? Could it be able to prevent/minimize possible damage in space?
  • etc.

Observation

While space scientists carry out scientific research in earthly laboratories, they still harbor bolder projects in their minds: the exploration of other parts of the universe using certain shapes of space-craft, and type/weights of materials.

The ease at which space-craft may travel far into space could lie in designing space-craft in the form of other shapes, especially the widely sighted saucer shape that has grabbed the imagination of the world’s intelligence agencies, and science fiction and extra-terrestrial life writers.

Conclusion

The proposition for saucer-shaped space-craft is only intended to prepare the readers imagination for something that could likely occur in the near, or distant future.

Interstellar flight: will space scientists be able to reach & navigate between the stars?

(Image credit: Pixabay.com.) If you could do something a few times, then you can do it again, even much better than you ever did before—how far can space scientists keep going in space?

It’s quite known that scientists have designed rockets and spaceships which have been used to go far beyond the boundaries of the Earth. But how far can they keep going?

If we believe there is an uncountable number of stars and galaxies, as reported by scientific studies, we might be inclined to believe that if mankind could understand the laws of extra-terrestrial nature (which might be the same, or different from the laws governing earthly nature), and develop adequate technology, there would be no limits to which mankind could explore outer space.

But even if we imagine a future when science could actually be able to do this, there may still be parts of outer space (universe) that will remain physically unreachable; probably due to their immeasurable distances away from the Earth, or lack of adequate technological equipment to reach them.

The victories of space science, against all odds and disbelief

Science did lots of study and work which helped mankind reach the moon in 1969. But long before then, seeds of the event were planted by men who lived in past ages.

One of such men was Leonardo da Vinci who spent his time making sketches of flying machines that looked awesome, and could actually be called prototypes of the modern-day helicopter.

However, da Vinci hid his sketches because of fear for the Inquisition that reigned when he was alive. But after his sketches were published in 1797, many people reacted and stated that the type of heavy machines depicted by da Vinci would never be able to leave the ground and fly through the atmosphere.

Many thought it would be impossible for any force to fly a machine over a long distance; yet, just a couple of decades later, aeroplanes have been carrying large quantities of weights over long distances, across land and sea areas that cover thousands of square miles.

During the 1940’s, when the first rockets were launched, medical doctors stated that space travel was impossible because the human body system wouldn’t be able to cope with the condition of being weightless for several days; yet, the human body system has been comfortable during space flights, and is able to withstand the condition of being weightless.

Observation

During the age of science, at one time or another, many negative assumptions that were made about new ideas have been disproved. The final evidence or proof of successful scientific and technological ideas have always preceded by negativity and speculation that nothing would work—but against all odds and negativity, they did work.

It’s quite interesting to witness successful space flights, and how science is achieving feats that were once ideas popularly frowned upon decades ago.

I believe that each time a rocket is launched into the universe or outer space, the belief of those who think it’s impossible for science to carry out interstellar flight among the stars, will become weaker and weaker.

Why? Because several years ago (probably decades), it was obviously ridiculous to talk about the existence of other planets, stars, and galaxies, and the thought about traveling outside the confines of the Earth. But today, no one can doubt the reality of other planets, stars, galaxies, and the possibility of getting into the vastness of the immeasurable cosmos.

Conclusion

Since science has proven that heavy machines can fly through the atmosphere, it will be difficult for people to disagree that interstellar flight or space travel is possible within our solar system; on the other hand, some people might find it hard to agree that mankind will be able to travel across vast distances in outer space.

Traveling across vast distances might be an easy feat for UFOs, if they actually exist—as speculated from evidence of past incidences related to their presumed activities.

If UFOs are as real as science say they could be, then who knows whether there are many other civilizations in outer space that might have conducted interstellar space travel, probably thousands of years before Earth’s scientists even thought about it.

But why would interstellar space travel be impossible when every wrong thing that was stated about it has been disproved?

I believe so much in what the future has to offer because time after time, again and again, mankind has witnessed how things that were considered impossible, became possible.

History is on the side of scientists, and it’s likely that present and future space scientists will break any current or future challenges that face/would face them.

The future of nuclear power: the more the production, the more the danger to humanity

Since the dawn of creation, and before the beginning of the era of planet Earth and mankind, the ambition to acquire more power and control always existed in beings that were/are much higher than mankind, but were also created by GOD.

The ambition to acquire more control and power, was expressed by wars that occurred in the spiritual realm during the times of remotely distant ages. In fact, records from different religious, holy texts/books, and mythologies confirm the occurrence of such wars.

The same ambition became part of lower beings in the lower parts of creation—on Earth—even amongst different species of animals and living things alike.

In the higher spiritual world, and before the creation of the material world, a war occurred between GOD’s angels, who were led by Archangel Michael, and the fallen angels, who were led by Lucifer, or Satan; and ended with victors and losers alike.

Presumably, great spiritual powers were displayed during the heavenly war. Probably the power or energy was, and still is a million or more times greater than the most destructive atomic weapon on Earth today.

There are different types of opposing powers

One thing that can be easily noticed during any war is that different grades and levels of opposing powers existed/exist: good power vs. bad power; strong power vs. weak power; spiritual power vs. earthly power; light vs. darkness, etc.—amongst many others.

All the same, some forms of power have always been employed in warfare, or fights. In the present age/stage of the world, nuclear power is the most potent and admired tool used during warfare, by many enemies, friends, regions and nations alike.

Nuclear power is top priority in the Earth realm

Nuclear power could be synonymous (not actual) with the greatest powers Lucifer and his angels were capable of employing at the time. But what was the result of the decision to exploit the option of making an attempt to take complete control of the spiritual world?

The result was self-destruction, spiritual decay, and spiritual imprisonment—synonymous with the disadvantages that nuclear wars bring to enemies and opposing powers that engage in earthly warfare.

That was a scene in the spiritual world. In the physical world, history has shown that the more power (in this case, nuclear power) is used to exploit other people and nations, the more self-destruction, natural decay and environmental degradation will be mankind’s fate.

With the level of destruction witnessed and recorded after using nuclear power, no one can deny how potent and destructive it is, and how easy it could bring all forms of life to an abrupt end.

But first, what is nuclear power?

Nuclear power is the energy released by a nuclear reaction. A nuclear reaction is a process that changes the energy level, structure or composition of atomic nuclei. Nuclear power is generated after changes occur in the nucleus of atoms: by fission of heavy nuclei, or by fusion of light nuclei into heavier ones. Usually, loss of mass accompanies both processes.

Advantages of using nuclear power

One major advantage of nuclear power is that it does not produce large quantities of greenhouse gases like coal- and oil-burning plants, and fossil fuels.

Disadvantages of using nuclear power: past accidents and problems

The major disadvantages of nuclear power are technical and political ones, and have kept mankind in fear of harnessing its full potential for decades.

One of the problems associated with harnessing nuclear power is that if for example, uranium atoms are split, and enormous quantities of nuclear waste are produced, they will remain radioactive for a period that could last anywhere between several thousands, and tens of millions of years

What do we mean when we state that nuclear waste will remain “radioactive” for that long? What we mean is that there will be spontaneous emission (occurring without any external effort or cause) of a flow of particles or electromagnetic rays under “nuclear decay” for that length of time—between several thousands, and tens of millions of years.

It is on record that a typical 1,000-megawatt reactor produces about 30 tonnes of “high-level” nuclear waste after a year. This waste is highly radioactive, to such an extent that it shines or glows in the dark.

With about a hundred or more commercial reactors in the U.S.A. alone, thousands of tonnes of high-level waste are being produced each year. It can be rightly assumed that thousands of tonnes of high-level nuclear waste are produced each year, per each set of hundred commercial reactors worldwide.

The 1979 accident at Three Mile Island, U.S.A., slowed down the rate of nuclear power production for commercial purposes. Furthermore, the devastating accident at Chernobyl in 1986 caused widespread fear, and greatly affected nuclear power production for a whole generation.

The impact: nuclear power production projects gradually dried up in Europe and U.S.A., and lost support in France, Russia and Japan where they received little sponsorship in the form of government subsidies.

The Chernobyl incident was a terrible one; even till this day, heat and radiation is still generated around the site where the nuclear accident occurred.

Nuclear waste disposal still poses a big problem

In addition to the problems associated with accidents and explosions, there is also the problem of disposing nuclear waste. Where can we safely dispose nuclear waste? How can we cheaply dispose nuclear waste?

Where can we put nuclear waste? Surprisingly or unsurprisingly, after about 50 years into the atomic age, there is still no concrete answer on how we can safely and cheaply dispose nuclear waste.

In the past, costly errors were made when nuclear wastes were permanently disposed: some nuclear wastes were dumped into oceans by U.S.A. and Russia, and others were buried in shallow pits.

Unfortunately, in 1979, a plutonium waste that was dumped in the Ural Mountains, exploded catastrophically, and required massive evacuation; also, it caused radiological damage around an area of about 400 square miles, between Sverdlovsk and Chelyabinsk.

Nowadays, another greater problem is that jealousy and hatred between nations could unleash nuclear war with untold repercussions

Yes; you read that right: the greatest problem that causes many other problems in today’s world is the jealousy and hatred people and nations of different races, religions, colour, etc.—this has caused a lot of distrust, and many societal/world problems such as war and environmental degradation.

History has shown that after nations become experts in commercial technology, they start to desire and acquire nuclear weapons. The danger associated with acquiring nuclear weapons and technology is that unruly people who have enough money could buy the weapons and technology easily, and start war(s).

It can be observed that during World War II, the richest nations were the ones that easily acquired technical knowledge, natural resources, and capabilities to create an atomic bomb which used nuclear power to enable it to do what it was designed for.

During World War II, it cost much more to create an atomic bomb; however, in the future, it is believed that uranium enrichment will become cheaper/much less costly, due to the possible invention of newer and cheaper technologies.

The danger we face is this: newer and cheaper technologies could make it easier for atomic bombs to get into the hands of a much higher number of uncertain people, regions, or nations.

An example of the uncertainty that surrounds nuclear power

It is on record that, as per one of the worst breaches of nuclear security in history, an obscure atomic engineer (name not mentioned) stole blueprints of the ultra-centrifuge and components of the atomic bomb, and sold them for profit.

In 1975, while working in Amsterdam for URENCO—which was established by West Germany, Britain, and Netherlands to supply uranium to European reactors—the said person gave the secret blueprints to the Pakistani government, which is widely reported to have hailed this act.

The same person was also suspected to have sold the same blueprints (classified information) to Saddam Hussein, and the governments of Libya, North Korea, and Iran.

Furthermore, it is also believed that Pakistan used the stolen technology to produce a small stockpile of nuclear weapons in 1998.

A little bit later, what was the ensuing nuclear rivalry between Pakistan and India? Each country exploded successions of atomic bombs, which almost resulted in a full blown nuclear war between them.

Most likely, all these incidences occurred because, initially, a blueprint of classified information was stolen by an uncertain/vague person and sold to other people.

Conclusion

Although nuclear energy has/can still have more advantageous uses in future, its future still looks “very very” bleak because of unfortunate cases of destruction that occurred in the past, caused a lot of deaths, and degraded many environments and societies.

At present, the future of nuclear energy seems to be shrouded by the same unfortunate incidences of the past, and the fact that the same unfortunate incidences (or similar ones) could possibly repeat themselves once, or many more times.

Advice

The acquisition of certain forms of power should be included among the “no-go areas of life”—and should actually be a “no-go area”. Why? Because the more you acquire them, the more danger they bring upon mankind and the environment.

Thank you.

Do you think it is a good idea to continue exploiting the capabilities of nuclear power? Or, should the pursuit of nuclear power be halted, altogether? Comments about your opinion will be appreciated in the comment section.

Mankind’s unsuccessful pursuit of physical immortality, when real immortality lies within each of us

What could be so interesting about life on Earth that people would want to live on it forever?

Throughout history, a lot of people have pondered about immortality, and several others have made unsuccessful attempts to find it after using all the available resources at their disposal.

But why would people seek for physical immortality in external things when spiritual immortality has been lying within us, even before birth?

What is immortality?

Immortality is the quality, characteristic or ability a being has to live forever, have an unending existence, or not be affected by death.

Types of immortality

Physical immortality: this type of immortality actually existed within the vicinity of mankind at the beginning of creation; but since GOD took it away after the disobedience of Adam and Eve, mankind hasn’t been able to find it again—even after making a lot of mental and human effort.

It seems that GOD has stamped it: the nature of life on Earth will forever be void of any form of immortality.

Spiritual immortality: this type of immortality has always been part of us, even before birth; it is part and parcel of our spiritual nature because our spirits/souls are immortal by nature.

Spiritual immortality is a free gift of GOD that carries eternity or everlastingness within it, regardless of religion, age, race, or how people live their respective lives.

The truth is that everybody’s inner core is already immortal. Our spiritual immortality is located deep within the confines of our physical bodies, but many people do not know about it, while others do not even believe it exist.

It’s quite surprising that certain people who know about spiritual immortality, are not content with it, and would even prefer to acquire physical immortality—which is yet to be found.

Mankind has made several attempts to find physical immortality since the beginning

Up till this moment, it hasn’t been proven that mankind’s DNA contains any spark of immortal essence.

Since mankind lost immortality during the days of Adam and Eve, regaining it became the goal of some people who lived, but still ended up dying on Earth.

Despite how obvious and likely it is that nobody will live on Earth forever, certain people have been in so much love with the Earth, its men, women, and environment, etc., to such an extent that they took it upon themselves to search the nooks and crannies of the Earth for physical immortality—as if it was declared that GOD locked it away somewhere on Earth.

In the beginning, mankind’s mistakes seemed to have made GOD take away physical immortality from life on Earth

Does GOD feel that physical immortality is not a good fit for mankind?

Did mankind’s seeming tendency to be materialistic, compel GOD to take away physical immortality which was actually within the reach of mankind in the Garden of Eden?

The Bible informs us that GOD banished Adam and Even from the Garden of Eden after they disobeyed his orders by eating the fruit/apple of knowledge.

In fact, biblical records hint that GOD thought Adam and Eve might unlock the secret of immortality, become like him, and live forever. Genesis 3: 22 states: “And the Lord GOD said, Behold, the man is become as one of us, to know good and evil: and now, lest he put forth his hand, and take also of the tree of life, and eat, and live for ever”.

So, as we can see, physical immortality seemed to be within the reach of mankind before the fall of Adam and Eve.

Apart from the Bible’s records of creation—which quite a number of people still don’t believe in—there are other records in a much older text (that dates back to the 27th century BC) called “The Epic of Gilgamesh”.

This epic gives a tale of Gilgamesh, a legendary Sumerian king who decided to embark upon a journey to find immortality.

Many people still don’t believe in the epic of Gilgamesh, and the Sumerian tale of creation because they mention beings (called gods) who were believed to have visited the Earth and created mankind.

But let’s continue with our brief tale of the epic of Gilgamesh: After an adventurous quest, Gilgamesh finally found the secret of immortality, only to see a serpent snatch it away at the last minute.

Note: “The Epic of Gilgamesh” is one of the oldest pieces of literature ever recorded. Because of this obvious fact, historians believe that the epic’s tale about the search for immortality inspired the Greek writer, Homer, to write the Odyssey.

Also, historians believe that Sumerian texts were the inspiration behind Noah’s flood which was mentioned in the Bible.

Another failed attempt to find physical immortality

Despite the links that physical immortality has with GOD, or gods, the search for it has been one of the oldest quests in human history.

Throughout history, rulers, kings and warlords had a lot of power to command entire regions and populations; however, there was always one thing that was beyond their control: immortality—and how to reverse aging.

In a quest to find immortality, or prevent aging, Emperor Qin—who unified China around 200 BC—sent several fleets of ships to find the “Fountain of Youth” which was believed to reverse aging, but he failed to achieve any positive result.

According to mythological records, Emperor Qin warned his fleet of ships not to come back if they failed to find the Fountain of Youth. Fortunately, or unfortunately, they ran away and found Japan instead, since they were unable to find the fountain, and too afraid to return back to Emperor Qin.

Scientific attempts to find physical immortality

For several decades, many scientists have held the belief that the life span of each human being was fixed, unchangeable, and beyond the ability of science to extend.

However, within the last few years, this long-held view has lost a lot of support because of awesome experimental results that have revolutionized the field of medical science.

Quite a number of scientists believe that physical immortality is within the reach of mankind. In fact, a scientist even claimed that humans will become immortal by the year 2050.

Scientist, theoretical physicist, and Nobel laureate, Richard Feynman, once stated that no evidence suggests or indicates that death is avoidable; and although death is inevitable, it is not completely inevitable; in fact, it will only be a matter of time before scientists discover the causes aging and death.

Conclusion

The possibility of acquiring physical immortality and extending human life, could be a source of joy for some people; on the other hand, it could be a source of sorrow for others, most especially when the current population explosion, high rate of pollution and degradation of many environments are put into consideration.

It’s quite possible that biological and nano-technological therapies will not only increase human life span, but preserve the youthfulness of human bodies too.

Regardless, physical immortality seems to be something that will forever be outside the reach of adventurous mankind.

I am of the opinion that if anyone succeeds in acquiring physical immortality, then a lot of problems would also arise with it—physical, spiritual, or a combination of both.

Thank you.

Do you think it’s a waste of time to search for physical immortality? Will physical immortality ever be discovered? Comments about your opinion will be appreciated in the comment section.

Why a sustainable amount of biofuels would be used as an alternative to jet fuel in 50 years’ time

Assessing the sustainability of biofuels for aviation has been an area of interest for researchers because it is a renewable and more environmentally friendly alternative to jet fossil fuel which is non-renewable and greatly diminishing day by day. Aviation biofuels, which are fuels produced from renewable biological resources like plants (or indirectly from industrial, domestic or agricultural wastes), are seen as a major option that could reduce the climatic impact of aviation and enhance decarbonisation in the coming decades. Despite reports of uncertain issues regarding the use/sustainability of aviation biofuels, there is abundant evidence from research—too many to list—that points to the fact that sky-rocketing developments in aviation biofuels and global conditions of economy/environment would favour the sustainable use of biofuels as an alternative to jet fuel in the next 50 years.

Uncertain issues and prospects regarding biofuels

1. Uncertain Issues

Some reported issues that could hamper the sustainability of aviation biofuels include: energy security, food, rural development, provision of employment, and land rights and human health issues (Ribeiro, 2013; Scovronick, 2014; van Eijck et al., 2014; Raman et al., 2015). Albeit the fact that sustainability has been a much-debated and well-researched topic in the past few years, there is still lack of concrete evidence in reviewed literature to show precise negative impacts (Ribeiro, 2013). In terms of impact, Lee et al. (2010) had stated that aviation causes negative RF (radiative forcing) or cooling by emitting Sulphur and destroying Methane; however, these outcomes have lesser impacts than positive RF or warming, which is due to other types of emissions.

2. Prospects

(i) The existing aviation fueling infrastructures (engines and mechanical/electrical systems) do not require large modifications because aviation biofuels are readily compatible with them (Kivits et al., 2010)—meaning that biofuels are a feasible replacement for the jet fossil fuels that are currently being used in large quantities in existing aircraft fleet.

(ii) Aviation biofuels are preferable because they are more environmentally friendly than jet fuels. Among other alternatives like hydrogen cells and solar-powered aircraft, biofuels seem to be the most practical option for current aircraft engines; in fact, studies carried out by Wong (2008) and Deurwaarder (2005) state that biofuels are less polluting and more sustainable in terms of production and consumption. Evidence from other studies suggests that biofuels are a good alternative to conventional kerosene-based jet fuels (Blakey, 2011).

(iii) There is enough land that can be used to cultivate raw materials (biomass) for production of aviation biofuels. Doornbosch & Steenblik (2007) reviewed many studies and are quite realistic in their assumptions: they see potential for expansion of over 80% of more cultivatable land area mainly concentrated in Africa and South & Central America for the cultivation of bio-energy crop production in 2050; in fact, it had even been stated that half of this land could be concentrated in seven countries: Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Sudan, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil and Colombia (Fischer et al., 2006).

(iv) Scientists and researchers are optimistic regarding the sustainability of aviation biofuels; in fact, scientists and NGOs had stated the possibility of improvements in sustainability that could be made with regard to biofuels (McBride et al., 2011).

Conclusion

The author is of the opinion that fossil fuels are continuously depleting and may completely diminish in future; thereafter, mankind (currently dependent on fossil fuel) will be forced to depend on biofuels which are renewable and can be easily cultivated in any country, and used in the aviation industry.

Regarding the issues raised previously, the author believes that researchers will continue to devote their time towards discovering higher-grade and genetically-engineered biofuels that would erase certain/uncertain environmental and economic issues. Enough evidence has shown that history is on the side of positive-thinking researchers, and they will always find ways to control or eradicate any challenges faced by mankind.

References

Blakey, L.R. (2011). Aviation gas turbine alternative fuels: A review. Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, 2863–2885.

Deurwaarder, E. (2005). Overview and analysis of national reports on the EU biofuel Directive: Prospects and barriers for 2005. ECN 5/1/2005.

Doornbosch R. & Steenblik R. (2007). Biofuels: Is the cure worse than the disease? Paris: OECD.

Fischer, G., Shah, M., van Velthuizen, H. & Nachtergaele, F. (2006). AgroEcological Zones Assessment. RP-06-003, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, April, Laxenburg.

Kivits, R., Charles, M.B., & Ryan, N. (2010). A post-carbon aviation future: Airports and the transition to a cleaner aviation sector. Futures 42(3), pp.199-211.

Lee, D.S., Pitari, G., Grewe, V. et al. (2010). Transport impacts on atmosphere and climate: Aviation. Atmospheric Environment 44(37), pp. 4678-4734.

McBride, A.C., Dale, V.H., Baskaran, L.M. et al. (2011). Indicators to support environmental sustainability of bioenergy systems. Ecological Indicators 11(5), pp.1277-1289.

Raman, S., Mohr, A., Helliwell, R., Ribeiro, B. et al. (2015). Integrating social and value dimensions into sustainability assessment of lignocellulosic biofuels. Biomass and Bioenergy. 82: p. 49–62.

Ribeiro, B.E. (2013). Beyond commonplace biofuels: Social aspects of ethanol. Energy Policy. 57: p. 355–362.

Scovronick, N. & Wilkinson, P. (2014). Health impacts of liquid biofuel production and use: A review. Global Environmental Change. 24: p. 155–164.

van Eijck, J., Romijn, H., A. Balkema, A. & Faaij, A. (2014). Global experience with jatropha cultivation for bioenergy: An assessment of socio-economic and environmental aspects. Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews. 32: p. 869–889.

Wong, H. M. (2008). Life-cycle assessment of Greenhouse Gas emissions from alternative jet fuels. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. U.S.A.