The greatest wisdom lies in knowing that you know nothing—the inspiring story of Socrates

Naturally, when anybody opens up their mind to absorb more knowledge, or learn anything, they become more knowledgeable—and in many in stances, wiser! This is exactly what part of the title of this article means, especially when knowledge is gained on the platform of “knowing nothing”—or, at least, “knowing little”.

A lot of wise people have lived on the Earth, and vanished from it. Many of them left their mark, but there is one person whose story and status as one of the wisest people ever, will continue to ring strong inspiring bells in the heart of humanity—Socrates!

The major problem in today’s world, as it was during Socrates’ time in ancient Greece, was that many people who were regarded as elites, professionals, or philosophers, “knew quite a lot”—but didn’t know as much as Socrates had presumed that they knew prior to the time he interviewed them, and interacted with them intellectually.

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Socrates was a common man who came from a poor background and lived in Athens of ancient Greece. He lived during a time when human beings believed so much in nature spirits whom they worshipped and called “gods”.

Socrates was not well bred; this made him a bit disadvantaged during his times; he wasn’t considered to be among the “elite class” neither. He was a polite man who—unlike the elites, professionals and philosophers—offered his services for free. He didn’t care much about being popular; he didn’t start or establish any school like the philosophers who lived after his time.

The beginning: How Socrates arrived at the conclusive and popular statement: “The greatest wisdom lies in knowing that you know nothing”

Along the journey of life, many people come across a lot of statements and beliefs, and are taught a lot of things which “might” or “might not” be true. Many people accept whatever they are told or informed, but this was never the case with Socrates.

Socrates was always inquisitive about everything and never accepted anything as true until he could prove or disprove it by himself; even the oracle at Delphi—the oracle of the ancient Greek gods—couldn’t convince him that he was the wisest person during his time.

Actually, Socrates started gaining popularity in the ancient world when the powerful oracle of Delphi declared that he was the wisest man alive. When this information spread around like wild fire, everybody wanted to know who Socrates was—even the people who had already known him as an inquisitive person who was never fed up of asking about the why, when, where, how of everything.

How would someone so inquisitive and thirsty for knowledge be the wisest man alive? How could that be? How? While people were trying to know more about Socrates, he was already busy questioning the oracle’s judgement and proclamation, and asking why he was the wisest man in the whole wide world. In fact, when he received the news, he called himself a fool—but the oracle still insisted that he was the wisest person!

The overly inquisitive Socrates was confused. Why? In terms of reputation and records, he had none; he was a novice, and nowhere near the elevated heights of the elites, professionals, philosophers, or popular Sophists of his time. On the other hand, his earthly reputation didn’t change the reputation that the lofty gods had concerning him; they esteemed him to be the wisest person, and that was the end of the discussion—the oracle of Delphi would say no more! For it had spoken as loud and as clear as usual.

Socrates’ personal search for the truth led to his conclusion that “The greatest wisdom lies in knowing that you know nothing”

As Socrates saw it, in terms of reputation and records, which the society held and still holds on high esteem, he really knew nothing at all. Socrates wouldn’t accept the oracle’s judgement; so he made a strong decision to find out why the oracle of Delphi declared he was the wisest man when the politicians and most elite people of the day didn’t even know he existed.

He made up his mind to continue being as skeptical as he used to be about everything prior to the declaration of the oracle. In order to be convinced, he decided to make it his life’s mission to put the judgement of the oracle to test. To do this, he started interviewing the greatest and most elite people in ancient Greece, and assess the type of wisdom they had. He wanted to know what stuff they were made of.

Socrates knew that if he could convincingly find someone who was wiser than himself, he would be able to disprove the wise oracle for the first time ever. In all reality, the oracle at Delphi was very powerful and believed to have never failed when making judgements or declarations.

Years later he came to a wise conclusion which is a grand lesson for all humanity

After interviewing the first person who happened to be an elite politician, Socrates concluded that—although the politician, and many people thought that the politician was wise—the politician was not really wise.

In fact, after the interview, as Socrates was walking away from the politician, he reflected in his thoughts: “Well, I am certainly wiser than this man. It is only too likely that neither of us has any knowledge to boast of; but he thinks that he knows something which he does not know, whereas I am quite conscious of my ignorance…it seems that I am wiser than he is to this small extent—that I do not think that I know what I do not know.”

It was based on this insight that Socrates used to approach future interviews, and mold his unique foundation for philosophy. The masses, and the politician whom Socrates interviewed, believed that the politician was wise and knew enough to be regarded as a wise man.

Yet, after having a conversation with the man, Socrates came to the conclusion that the politician overestimated the level of the knowledge and wisdom he (the politician) possessed. In addition, the politician pretended to know things that he didn’t really know much or anything about.

In many aspects of life, the politician was regarded as being intellectually superior to Socrates, but Socrates found out that the man foolishly assumed that he knew many other things, and that his assumptions gave him the privilege to assume things beyond his specialization or subject domain.

Certainly, this type of mentality is not the hall mark of true wisdom. Maybe if King Solomon or Jesus Christ lived during the time of Socrates, and Socrates had visited them, he might have been able to disprove the oracle’s judgement because of the history of their profound wisdom—this is a subject for discussion which would be suitable for another day.

Socrates compared his wisdom with that of the politician and further concluded that he was wiser than the politician, and not because he knew more than the politician, but because, unlike the politician, he (Socrates) knew that there were many things that he (Socrates) didn’t know, and he (Socrates) admitted!

Every day afterwards, Socrates discovered that many elite people pretended to know what they had no knowledge of

To Socrates’ surprise, other politicians and elite people with the highest reputation (whom he later interviewed) were almost completely deficient of real wisdom; also, many people who had much lesser reputations were much wiser than the so-called “highly reputable elites” of the society.

It got to a point that Socrates lost belief he would ever find a wise person. Even poets of his time, when questioned, couldn’t convincingly state the meaning of the poems they wrote. When asked many questions, the poets were just as arrogant as the politicians.

With time, Socrates observed that the whole society was making a mistake by assuming that people who had a certain specialty were “wise” or “elite”. He began to believe that it was wrong to assume that people who had success or a special talent, were generally wise, or geniuses.

Socrates was perplexed by how people carried themselves so high as if they possessed all the knowledge in the world; worst still, when questioned, most of them weren’t capable of proving that they had certain knowledge they indirectly claimed to have.

Socrates discovered a lot when trying to disprove the oracle’s declaration that he was the wisest man of his time: everywhere he turned to, he found presumptuous and arrogant elite people who were only pretending to be wise, but didn’t have “real wisdom”.

Finally, Socrates believed that there was nothing spectacular about the wisdom he possessed—even though he had come to the conclusion that other people were not a wise as they claimed to be

At the end of Socrates’ attempt to disprove the oracle—which he couldn’t—he started believing that the oracle could be right after all; but even so, there wasn’t anything interesting about his wisdom that one should be too excited about.

He felt that, although other people liked to exaggerate what they knew, and show off their wisdom, he wasn’t necessarily wiser than them. He started asking himself:

  • What if being wise means not having enough knowledge, and admitting that one doesn’t have enough knowledge?
  • What if being wise means not having enough knowledge, and being aware of ones limitations?
  • What if being wise means finding out how much one does not know?
  • What if the wisest person on Earth didn’t necessarily have all or sufficient knowledge, but was someone who had the courage to admit that he knew very little, or nothing?

Conclusion

It is very likely that the powerful and real-life oracle of Delphi in ancient Greece was right from the very beginning when it had proclaimed that Socrates was the wisest man of his age, regardless of the fact that he was a nobody in society, and was a novice who was nowhere near the level of the so-called elite class of his time.

Whatever the oracle truly meant—which is not so clear—Socrates wanted to get clarity about it, and pursue it to the later end; and he did with all humility, simplicity and honesty. Socrates critically addressed the things that people think they know and what they really know—these are two different things that people always mix together and cause a lot of disharmony in the society—sometimes, leading to a fake society.

It is true that when compared to universal knowledge (knowledge of the universe, or knowledge of everything), we don’t know much at all; only GOD does! However, this shouldn’t stop us from exploring and learning more without being boastful or excessively assuming.

(Featured Image Credit: Pixabay.com.)

10 important things you should “do” and 10 others you should “not do” in order to be contented and successful in life

Where do you think you will be in the next three or five years? Probably, you could be in the most beautiful city having fun with family or friends; or maybe, you could be on an Island you had longed desired to visit since you were a kid. If we take fortune out of the scenario, the plans and actions you take today will go a long way in determining the extent to which you will be contented and successful future.

To a great extent, your success lies in your hands. Regardless of how many definitions people have for contentment and success, contentment and success actually depend a lot on what you define them to be. Your definitions might differ a lot from the definitions of other people.

What make you contented and successful in life is personal to you. Your siblings, partner, parents and friends might have their own definitions of contentment and success, but their definitions will always remain their own; they aren’t meant for you! Whatever makes or will make you feel contented, happy and successful, is what your definition of contentment and success should be.

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Being contented and successful isn’t necessarily about having all the riches in the world, or winning every award. Actually, it’s all about personal fulfilment. One person might feel contented and successful travelling around the world, while another person might feel contented and successful pursuing their own passion in a country, city, or even a small village.

Although we might not always be able to give an all-encompassing definition of contentment and success, history has shown that there are certain things that can give and maximize one’s level of contentment and success, and make one more contented, productive, happy, and successful.

Generally, there are some things you must do, and others you must not do—“do not”:

10 important things you should do in order to be contented and successful

(1) Find what you like doing and engage in it

Oprah Winfrey once made a statement that has become a very popular quote: “You know you are on the road to success if you would do your job and not be paid for it”. In order words, if you would be happy doing your job without receiving payment, then you are on the road to success. If you don’t like something, then you would be wasting your time engaging in it.

(2) Always be positive and think big

It might be difficult to always feel big or great, but it will always be great to feel great. The danger most of us will ever face will arise because of our inability to think positively, and think big. Many people fall too short of their expectations because from the very beginning, they aimed too low and were consistently negative along the way. Don’t always put away your dreams because of negativity, or because you want to follow an easier route that leads to nowhere. Have faith and unwavering thoughts that you will succeed!

(3) Balance or harmonize your work together with your life

Success could become as boring as it usually does whenever people concentrate or engage too much in what they like, and to such an extent that it takes over all other interesting things in their lives—they make their work or dreams take over their life instead of harmonizing the two together by providing time for both work and life. Don’t spend countless hours on your work or dreams to the detriment of your entire life.

(4) Be consistently active—always be willing to work

Every now and then, give yourself a task to do—be active! If we think about all the great achievements that a number of men and women accomplished and make this world a much better place, we will appreciate the benefits of being active and sticking to commitments. Leonardo da Vinci once said something like this: “It had long since come to my attention that people of accomplishment rarely sat back and let things happen to them. They went out and made things happen”.

(5) Be courageous enough to follow your intuition and take risks

If you strongly believe and desire to achieve something, then you might have a faint idea about what to do in order to materialize it. When you have sufficient belief and perception, no matter how little, don’t be afraid to take a step (or necessary steps) to get things going. Generally, you have to trust your own instincts in many areas of life.

(6) Establish positive relationships

The best societies, organizations and institutions are the ones that have or cultivate positive relationships which lead to productivity and success. The best types of leaders or people have always been those who never causes commotions, and didn’t fight with people; they were friendly to everyone around them, and people liked them for their friendly nature.

(7) Always have faith—believe that you have the ability to succeed

Success depends a lot on your how much imagine yourself achieving something(s)—achieving the unseen! In life you will always come across people who will doubt your abilities and give you reasons why you won’t achieve your goals and desires, most especially when you are yet to take a step; but regardless of what they think, do, or say, keep on having faith in your own abilities; then one day your hidden potential will come to light much to your utter surprise!

(8) Always educate yourself

We all know the popular wise words: “knowledge is power”. Indeed, knowledge is really power, and probably more than power too. Educating yourself with knowledge and skills could enhance your potential. On terms of financial success, studies have shown that the more knowledgeable or educated one is, the more like they are to make money. Not all types of education have to be formal; one can be educated on anything that can bring contentment and success.

(9) Set boundaries with certain types of people

Generally, be loving, caring, and have open arms, but don’t accept disrespect and abuse from people who normally emit negative vibes. The world has very odd and negative people, and it’s better to know when and how to handle some of their excesses which could infect you on the long run when you don’t straighten things out and early enough.

(10) Always be ready for the unexpected—anything can happen tomorrow

As long as you live, do all you can to acquire knowledge and understand how things work, but always keep this thought in mind: no amount of knowledge or understanding can take away the unexpected circumstances that each person will inevitably face tomorrow. Always have a Plan B in mind in case the unexpected happens.

10 important things you should not do in order to be contented and successful

(1) Do not blame other people whenever things don’t work

Everyone will be able to taste true success if they put down their garments of excuses, stop making excuses, and start being accountable for most of the things they blame other people for. Most people have the tendency to blame others, and this usually delays collective progress.

(2) Do not doubt yourself—don’t be afraid of failure

Your level of confidence today will continue to play a huge role in how contented or successful you will be in the future. Confidence in yourself can take you to the next level even when you are yet to achieve your dreams. Don’t pay attention to doubts. Whenever you feel discouraged, concentrate on positivity and ignore discouragement and doubt.

(3) Do not put important things off

It can be difficult to change. Self-improvement and self-development are not always easy initiate and do. When things are difficult, it becomes easier to keep them for another day. Stop procrastinating, and start putting those important pieces together. To be contented and succeed at the highest level, you must stop putting off important things.

(4) Do not think that you don’t have a choice

Regardless any circumstance, there will always be a choice. Sometimes you might even have to choose between two things that look equally average, below average, or even bad. However, there will still be a chance to make a choice. In any situation, don’t sell your soul!

(5) Do not always continue doing the same thing and expecting a different result—use new ideas

Although many people are aware that two plus two will always be equal to four, they waste all their determination and energy to make two plus two equal to five, or a number that’s much higher—this is illogical and unnatural! Albert Einstein said—and I agree—that insanity means “doing the same thing and expecting a different result”. The truth of the matter is that in many areas of life, if you keep using one approach, you will continue to get the same results, no matter how much you hope for something else.

(6) Do not expect everything to always work out precisely the way want

People can be untrustworthy, and nature does things whenever or however it likes; so nothing is completely certain—this has been the way of the world since the beginning. Don’t trust anyone completely, and don’t always expect people to love or help you. On the other hand, do all you can to make things work, and leave the rest in the hands of people and Mother Nature. Note that everything will not always work out on its own; be creative and take responsibility for yourself.

(7) Do not say “yes” when you are supposed to say “no”

The Christian Bible says, “let your yes be yes, and your no be no”. When you say “yes” to one thing, then at the same time you would be saying “no” to others. If you say yes to academics and examinations, then you must say no to “playing around consistently”. The major problem in our society today is that saying “no” is a great challenge for many people, and this has caused a lot of problems in organizations, businesses, and relationships because saying “yes” has led to lots of disasters. In many instances, refrain from using comments like “I am not certain”, “I might not be able to”, etc.

(8) Do not mismanage your finances

Regardless of your income or how much you make, if you manage your money, your financial stability will be ensured and maintained over a long period of time. Keep track of your expenses in order to have insight and prevent over-spending—or spending on irrelevant things. Take a critical look at your expenses in order to be sure your finances are not wasting.

(9) Do not compare your life with the lives of other people

It is quite unfortunate that many people measure their progress or success in life by comparing their lives with that of other people who live around or far away from them. Many people have the tendency to compare the negatives in their lives with the positives in the lives of other people. Instead of comparing yourself with people who are better off than you, think about all the homeless, poor and severely ill people whom you are better off than—count your blessings! If you want to start feeling contented and successful, value your own life and the things you have, great or small.

(10) Don’t live in the past—live in the present, and concentrate on the future

There could be a lot of benefits gained from by looking at past successes, and getting inspiration from them; however, one should be careful because if it gets to one’s head, it could make one become stagnant and not move ahead to achieve more success. Also, if one concentrates on a negative past, they could become much more negative and not achieve anything substantial in the future.

(Featured Image Credit: Pixabay.com.)

How to make money by browsing with CryptoTab Browser

Until about two months ago, I never imagined I could use a browser to browse make money at the same time, especially in the world’s strongest currency: the “Bitcoin”. As you might have known, at the time of writing, one Bitcoin (BTC) is currently equal to about $8,764.

In case you don’t know much about Bitcoin but are interested in knowing more, you can search for information about it on Google or any other search engine; read about the year it was created and how it has grown in strength and popularity over the years.

Click here, install CryptoTab browser and start browsing and earning Bitcoins immediately

What inspired me to take interest in Bitcoins in 2016 was the story of a Norwegian man who bought 5,000 Bitcoins (which was about $27 in 2009) and forgot about them, only to discover in October 2013—four years later—that the value of his forgotten Bitcoins had shot up $980,000 or £886,000. You can read about that here.

In 2019, the same 5,000 BTC that was equal to $27 in 2009, and $980,000 in 2013, is now equal to $43,820,000.

After hearing about the rise in value of Bitcoins, the Norwegian figured out the password to his Bitcoin wallet, opened it and was surprised at what he saw, but sold a portion of his Bitcoins. With the money, he bought an apartment in an expensive part of Oslo, Norway. All thanks to the surging rise in value of the Bitcoin which has often been overlooked in the past.

This is a screenshot of the all-time stats for the rise and fall of Bitcoin as shown in my Bitcoin wallet (similar to an online/offline bank account) which shows the official and current rate of Bitcoin (BTC) to Nigerian Naira (NGN): currently, 1 BTC = NGN 3,120,001 = $8,764.

1_Bitcoin all-time stats

When I started using a Bitcoin wallet to buy and invest in Bitcoin online businesses a few years ago, I earned quite a good amount of money, and it helped a lot in many areas of my life. At different times, I earned between hundreds of dollars, and a few thousand dollars. I never wanted to take greater risks when investing. At times it was risky to invest.

In 2017 I started investing Bitcoin on some websites and earning. At the time, the rate of Bitcoin to US Dollar was around 1 BTC = $1,300, or NGN 460,000 (Nigerian Naira). Mind you, in 2015 the rate was as low as 1 BTC = NGN 49,000; while in 2016 it was around 1 BTC = NGN 88,000.

Bitcoin has been rising and falling, but generally it has always been rising. In 2018 it rose to an all-time high of 1 BTC = over $10,000 = over NGN 3,500,000; while in January 2019 it dropped to a rate of 1 BTC = NGN 1.3 million, and in November it has been around 1 BTC = NGN 3.12 million.

I actually made money from Bitcoin online businesses in the past, especially in 2017—but I didn’t make it from browsing. I made it from investing in websites that traded Bitcoins and gave out interest to registered members; the interest rate depended on the amount of money each user or registered member invested.

Anyone can actually make money in Bitcoin while browsing on CryptoTab browser by searching for favorite websites and videos, or doing anything interesting. There is no compulsion when you already love something that is as interesting and adventurous as browsing or surfing the internet.

You can make much greater money with CryptoTab browser if you refer people (get referrals) like I recently did after publishing an article titled: “How to make money immediately with your social media accounts or blogs”.

After publishing and republishing the article a number of times, a lot of people signed up, and I have already earned more from an accumulated percentage of my referrals earnings than I’ve made by personally using shortened URLs from Adfly.

For the benefit of those who haven’t used or seen a Bitcoin wallet, or statement of a Bitcoin transaction, the following screenshots of my Bitcoin wallet have been attached to show how a typical Bitcoin wallet transaction statement appears whenever I receive Bitcoins:

1_How a Bitcoin transaction statement looks like

2_How bitcoin transactions look

The screenshots below show a series of transactions for the Bitcoins which I earned daily and was receiving from Bitcoin investment websites I registered with in the past. They usually sent Bitcoins straight into my two Bitcoin wallets on Luno (formerly BitX) and Blockchain respectively:

3_received bitcoins

4_Received Bitcoins

7_blockchain account

You can use the same time you usually use for browsing, to also make money by browsing on CryptoTab Browser and earning in the world’s strongest currency—the “Bitcoin”

If you are form Nigeria, South Africa, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, and need a Bitcoin wallet, you can get one from Luno (formerly BitX) for free. Click here and sign up.

If you are from any part of the world, including the five nations I just listed in the previous paragraph, you can get a free Bitcoin wallet from the most trusted giant in the business: the “Blockchain”. Sign up here.

Every country that allows Bitcoin trading transactions has exchangers who usually buy Bitcoins and send the equivalent (in local currency) into the local bank account of the person or people that sell Bitcoins. This is a screenshot of Bitcoins which I sold in Nigeria at a certain time in the past; the equivalent in Naira (NGN) was sent to my local bank account.

5_sold bitcoins

Instead of taking risks to invest in Bitcoin online trading businesses, you could use your time (like you usually do whenever you browse the internet) to browse on CryptoTab browser and earn Bitcoins.

If you would like to use this great opportunity and make money from the world’s strongest currency while doing what you like doing best online—surfing—then click here and get CryptoTab browser which is the world’s first browser to have Bitcoin mining features, widely used by more than 9 million people across the world!

If you are really interested, don’t waste time; click here and download CryptoTab browser on the page that would open. There are CrytoTab browsers for Windows, android phones (Google), or Apple phones and tablets (Apple Inc.)—depending on your operating system.

6_cryptotab browser

Before downloading and using CryptoTab browser, it is important note that besides making money, CryptoTab Browser is a free lightweight browser that has additional functionality to mine and earn Bitcoins, and still make your browsing experience fast and comfortable.

How to install CryptoTab Browser

CryptoTab Browser is available on its website here. You may follow these instructions in order to install it:

  • Download the installation file
  • If prompted, click “Run” or “Save”
  • If you chose “Save”, double-click “download” in order to start installing
  • Start your new CryptoTab browser.

After you successfully install the browser, you will be asked to sign in with your Google account in order to start browsing and earning Bitcoins.

(Featured Image Credit: Pixabay.com.)

Civil Engineering Services (PDF Download Available)

1. Definition of Civil Engineering Services

Civil engineering services are professional duties or works carried out by civil engineers which includes: design, construction, and maintenance of the physically and naturally built environment, including works like roads, bridges, canals, dams, and buildings, etc. A civil engineer is a person who practices civil engineering, i.e. the application of planning, designing, constructing, maintaining, and operating infrastructures while protecting public and environmental health, as well as improving existing infrastructures that have been neglected.

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Civil engineering services take place in the public sector from municipal through to national governments, and in the private sector from individual homeowners through to international companies. Because civil engineering is a vast profession, which includes several specialized sub-disciplines, its history is linked to the knowledge of structures, materials science, geography, geology, soils, hydrology, environment, mechanics, and other fields.

Services Offered By Professional Civil Engineers

The question asked at the assembly of the European Council of Civil Engineers (ECCE) was “What services may be offered by civil engineers in your country?” The aim of the question was to ascertain the degree of diversity in the civil engineering role, and also to discover if there are any exceptions for which special approvals or specialist education is required in the nations that make up the organization. Examples of various types of civil engineering services are listed under the following countries:

Croatia

The following services are provided by civil engineers:

  • design services for infrastructure projects (roads, railways, water supply, sewerage schemes, water treatment plants, hydroelectric power plants, dams, etc.)
  • design services (only for the civil engineering portion of design work for buildings, such as structural design, organization of work, material and work specifications, conceptual and detailed structural drawings, etc.)
  • supervision (inspection) services during realization of works
  • project control to check fulfillment of essential project requirements, in accordance with the Construction Product Directive (Directive 89/106/EEC)
  • construction services in building and engineering works
  • use and production of raw materials, and material testing services
  • maintenance of completed projects
  • scientific research in the field of civil engineering.

They may be self-employed, employed in design offices, or employed in other types of companies. Civil engineers are not allowed to offer architectural design services.

Cyprus

Civil engineers can offer various services for civil engineering works including, feasibility studies, civil engineering designs, structural designs, preparation of tender/contract documents, procurement, supervision of construction works etc. Civil engineers who have registered before 1993 can also carry out architectural designs and submit them for building permits. Civil engineers who registered after 1993 are not permitted to submit architectural designs. There is however a dispute as to what ‘architectural design work’ is.

Czech Republic

Civil engineers can undertake the design, development, supervision and execution of all forms of construction. Selected activities in construction, which are of decisive significance for the protection of public interest, in the preparation, design, or execution of construction work may be performed only by persons who have a proven professional qualification obtained by examination and have obtained a professional certificate.

Estonia

A wide range of services may be offered by civil engineers after graduation in the fields of construction, design and maintenance of buildings and structures.

France

Civil Engineers are involved in all steps of the construction process, so they offer their services in the following phases:

  • preliminary plans of works
  • materials production
  • design of works
  • construction processes on job sites
  • quality control of works carried out
  • operation of works after construction.

They also operate at any functional or operational levels in industry, and in positions of authority in the public sector.

Germany

There is a wide range of possibilities of services in Germany, for example: Services related to civil engineering works and transportation facilities, traffic planning services, services relating to buildings, open-air facilities, project control, experts reports and valuations, town planning services, services relating to planning load-bearing structures, services relating to thermal building physics, services relating to sound insulation and acoustics, services relating to soil mechanics, earthworks and foundation engineering.

Ireland

In Ireland, civil engineers may offer all services. Civil Engineers are allowed to submit “architectural” designs for building permits.

Portugal

The services offered by Civil Engineers are defined by law but only relating to design. A civil engineer may offer any service in the construction sector. For example, design of structures, urban planning, hydraulics, geotechnics, construction management, etc. Civil engineers are still allowed to submit “architectural” designs for building permits, but only for small buildings. There is a plan to change this in the near future.

Slovakia Republic

Civil engineers perform complex activities in design, territorial development planning and design, project management, research and development, as a site manager, as well as service activities. They are also involved in public and state administration, education, rural development in all kinds of services, surveying and many other areas. For selected activities they must have authorization, i.e. proof of qualification from the Slovak Chamber of Civil Engineers by an examining board including a certificate.

United Kingdom

Civil engineers can undertake the development, design, supervision and execution of all forms of construction both in public and private work. For some types of work, e.g. the construction of dams or to work as an independent building inspector, a special authorization is needed.

2. Water Supply Installation

Generally, pipes must be installed to meet requirements for durability, safety and thermal comfort/stability. Prior to installation of water supply facilities, design considerations will be carried out and also, choice of materials will be made. The following factors should be accounted for in the design:

(a) the water supplier’s requirements, including those of notification.

(b) the estimated daily consumption and the maximum and average flow rates required, together with the estimated time of peak flow.

(c) the location of the available supply.

(d) the quality, quantity and pressure required, and the available pressures at various times during a typical day.

(e) the cold water storage capacity required.

(f) the likelihood of ground subsidence due to mining activities or any other reason.

(g) the likelihood of contamination of the site.

(h) transient (short-lived) or surge pressures that might arise during the operation of the system.

Installation shall be designed to avoid waste, undue consumption, misuse, contamination and erroneous measurement. The installation shall be designed to avoid the trapping of air during filling and the formation of air locks during operation.

2.1 Handling of Materials

All materials and components used for the construction of a water system shall be handled with sufficient care and attention to prevent their deterioration, or the ingress (act of entering) of contaminants. Deterioration, which is due to improper laying of pipes, use of poor-quality material, improper tightening of capillary/mechanical joints, and improper compaction of underground/underlying soil, etc., can impair the serviceability, or affect the performance of pipework systems. Some pipes are manufactured from asbestos cement. When working on these pipes and all other types of asbestos containing materials, keep exposure to asbestos dust as low as is reasonably practicable. Great care should be exercised in cutting and grinding operations to keep dust generated to the minimum and prevent people breathing in the dust. This may be achieved by the use of hand rather than power tools.

Bending of Pipes

Damaged pipes shall be rejected. Care should be taken to avoid crimping and restricting the diameter of pipes when forming bends. Purpose-designed equipment should be used where appropriate.

2.2 Joining of Pipes

Care shall be taken to establish satisfactory jointing techniques for all water service pipework. When making joints by welding, brazing or soldering, precautions shall be taken to avoid the risk of fire, and care taken to avoid inhalation of fumes from the jointing process. Ends shall be cut square, all burrs (rough projection left on a work-piece after cutting) shall be removed from the ends of pipes and any jointing materials used shall be prevented from entering the system. All piping and fittings shall be cleaned internally and shall be free from debris. No metal pipe shall be connected to any other pipe or water fitting by means of an adhesive in any case where the metal pipe is:

(a) installed in the ground or passes through or under any wall footing or foundation;

(b) embedded in a wall or solid floor;

(c) enclosed in a chase or duct (enclosed passage for fluid);

(d) in a position where access is difficult.

Cutting tools that are in good condition should be used to limit tube distortion and the tube should be cut square (directly perpendicular) with the axis. Any tube ends that are distorted should be re-rounded using a suitable tool prior to the joint assembly.

Copper Pipes

When making capillary solder joints (or solder fittings – tubes having small internal diameters), the mating faces of the tube and fitting shall be abrasively cleaned with nylon cleaning pads or emery strip (not steel wool) and flux applied sparingly to the spigot (regulator for controlling the flow of a liquid from a reservoir).

Capillary fittings (pipe fittings which have socket-type ends so that when the fitting is soldered to a pipe end, the solder flows along the ring-like space between the pipe exterior and the socket): the joint should be heated until the solder (lead-free) is constrained within the fitting or is fed in with a solder stick or wire, flows by capillary attraction (surface tension and resulting in the elevation or depression of liquids in capillaries) to fill the joint space. The joint should remain untouched until the solder has cooled and solidified but then any surplus flux (solder discharge) on the assembly should be carefully removed. Use of excessive amounts of flux should be avoided.

If you would like to have the remaining 57 pages of detailed content on this broad subject of civil engineering services, which contains a lot of images for the purpose of illustration, then get my self-published 67-page eBook through the following link: Civil Engineering Services. The topics in the eBook include:

1. Definition of Civil Engineering Services

  • Services offered by civil engineers in some selected countries

2. Water Supply Installation

  • Handling of materials
  • Joining of pipes
  • Connections between different materials
  • Joining pipes to cisterns and tanks
  • Underground pipe laying
  • Pipework in buildings

3. Hot Water Systems

  • Choice of system
  • Gas-Fired Water Heaters in Rooms Containing a Bath or Shower
  • Water-jacketed Tube Heaters
  • Main types of hot water systems
  • Common Materials and Components

4. Sanitary Appliances

  • Preliminary Data for Selection of Appliances
  • Time Schedule
  • Materials
  • Design Considerations

5. Methods of Solid Waste (Refuse) Disposal

  • Non-hazardous Waste
  • Mixed Waste (Radioactive/Hazardous)

6. Equipment for Air Conditioning & Ventilation

  • Air Conditioning
  • Ventilation

7. Installations for Industrial Buildings

  • Gases (Natural Gases)
  • Liquids (Liquefied Natural Gases)

8. Refrigeration

  • Vapor-Compression Refrigeration, or Vapor-Compression Refrigeration System (VCRS)
  • Description of the Vapor-Compression Refrigeration System

9. Vacuum Cleaning

  • Major types of vacuum cleaners

10. Fire-fighting Systems

  • Fire extinguishers
  • Fire hose/Fire hose reels
  • Fire hydrant (diesel/electric-driven) systems
  • Automatic Sprinkler Systems

(Featured Image Credit: Pixabay.com.)

Milestone—About 3,000 followers in 10 months, and 2,148 eBook downloads in 3 months

I never thought I would publish an article about blogging milestones such as “number of followers”, or “number of downloads”—but I’ve just done that now! However, the aim is only to provide motivation for those whom it could inspire.

Number of followers

When this year started on January 1, 2019, I had only 187 followers after about 2½ years from the day I started operating this site! But as at the date of publishing this post (November 11, 2019), I have around 3,110 followers—this almost about 3,000 followers more since the beginning of year 2019.

Number of eBook downloads

Although WordPress.com stated on my dashboard that file download counts were not recorded before July 2019, I actually started putting free download buttons to my eBooks on articles/posts since the middle of August 2019, which is roughly 3 months ago.

During this time, my 91-page self-published eBook which is on Amazon, was downloaded a total of 1,320 times on my site, while the remaining 7 eBooks were downloaded 828 times. Generally, my eBooks have been downloaded 2,148 times on my site within the last 3 months from the date this article was published.

2148 downloads

If you haven’t gotten a copy of my 91-page inspiring eBook, then click here and download the eBook (PDF) for free—“Real Faith that can Deeply Inspire You Forever”. (Download Instructions: When you click the above link, also click the “Skip AD” button that will appear around the top right corner of your screen, and the file will appear for download. Alternatively, if the “Press allow” button appears, click it so that the file(s) will appear for download.)

This book can really boost your faith, positivity level, and also change your perspective about life. The chapters in the book are as follows, and in the following order:

1. Faith: the superpower that materializes desires & gives new life to dying ambitions

  • The shield of faith
  • Developing the shield of faith

2. Faith: still strong enough to alter today’s facts

3. Your outcome in life is determined by what you believe in: faith or fact

4. The reality of invisible worlds & life: physical & spiritual

  • Evidences of invisible life
  • The reality of the spiritual world, & life after death

5. How to develop strong faith

  • Definition of faith
  • How strong faith can be developed
  • Certain things that can affect faith

6. How to influence your mind to attract your desires and a glorious afterlife

  • Have a good intention to acquire what you desire
  • Decide what you want
  • Give unto others so that it will be easier for you to receive
  • Make it a habit to always practice visualizing what you want

7. There is magic in positive thinking—always think positively!

  • If positive thinking is effective, why can’t everybody do it?
  • Is there evidence that positive thinking is effective?

8. Past events that disproved the impossible: one person’s impossibility is another person’s possibility

  • Past events that illustrate how people who studied the impossible changed the course of the world
  • The New York Times
  • Nineteenth century chemists
  • Lord Kelvin
  • Albert Einstein
  • Stephen Hawking

9. Prophets of technology, or Prophets of GOD?

  • Two great visionaries
  • Leonardo da Vinci
  • Jules Verne
  • Were they prophets of technology, or prophets of GOD?

10. How to turn defeat into victory by experimenting with different things

  • Look away from defeat at the bottom of the ladder, and towards victory at the top of the ladder
  • Everyone who truly turned defeat into victory, encountered and responded to one form of defeat or another
  • Although it is barely impossible to succeed without encountering hardship and opposition, it is possible to use hardship to move forward and upward ever
  • The lesson is this: gain or salvage something valuable from every situation—good or bad
  • Instead of blaming people or bad luck, look at challenges or setbacks and learn from them

11. The fight of faith: why give up when time comes to fight this important battle?

  • Despite our knowledge about positivity, why do many of us lose the battle of faith?
  • So how can we acquire faith?

12. The importance of protecting your unlimited potential: a look at some unlimited potential achievements & quotes

  • But what is the meaning of unlimited potential?
  • Some of the greatest unlimited potential achievements in history
  • Some popular and inspiring quotes on unlimited potential & possibilities

13. The universality of GOD’s power

  • GOD’s power is so universal, it can be found in the smallest and mightiest deeds in creation
  • The universality of GOD’s power also reaches the deepest part of the human spirit
  • The universality of GOD’s power makes it possible for GOD to be contacted from anywhere in the universe—anywhere!

14. The everlasting generosity of GOD, the universe, or Mother Nature

  • The generosity of GOD seems to be a law in the universe! Why? Because it can be seen everywhere

How faith comes, grows, and increasingly becomes stronger!

The feeling of blogging to 1st position on Google in 28 countries

My blogging career: questions, and my answers

(Featured Image Credit: Pixabay.com.)

How to lose weight fast by thinking thin

Contrary to what many people think, the foundation of success for any weight loss plan, program or procedure starts in the brain, not outside of it. Many studies have shown that when certain people stick to a diet, it works; on the other hand, the same (or other types) of diets don’t work on a long term basis for other people.

Advances in psychological studies have proven that—like success—thoughts also govern the outcome of weight loss plans, programs or procedures. Very experienced psychologists have succeeded in developing and applying mental strategies or tricks to help people who have not been successful at dieting or weight loss programs because of the type of passion and emotions they have for food.

Many people love to eat and find it difficult to say no to the type of rich foods and chocolaty desserts that usually end up harming a lot of people’s bodies. Many people are constantly faced with the temptation to watch the sorts of foods they eat, and the quantities they consume.

At the end of the day, many people end up being unsuccessful with the weight loss programs they once planned to adhere. If such is your experience, then you may need to work with a psychotherapist, trained psychologist, or diet coach.

What is “thinking thin”?—The science of “thinking thin”

“As you think, so you are”—The Christian Bible. “Thinking thin” simply means having the mindset or mentality of someone whose weight is either thin, slim, or just okay—not fat. “Being fat” depends a lot on how one thinks, feels and handles everything associated with it.

The easiest way to lose weight fast is by thinking thin: you can think thin to lose weight

One’s psychology about weight will have an impact on how they go about gaining weight, maintaining weight, or losing weight. People who struggle to lose weight have a completely different mindset from those who are thin or slim, or just okay with their weight!

The people who enjoy food and eat it whenever they like, have a very different mentality from those who believe they have to consistently monitor what they eat, and control their food intake.

The mentality of thin people—people who “think thin”

Many studies have shown that thin people eat intuitively: they only eat when they are hungry, and they stop once their stomach is full. If thin people are not hungry, then they won’t eat. It’s as simple as that for them!

Those who succeed at thinking thin without any qualms are used to eating when their stomach feels somewhere between “slightly hungry” and “hungry”. Also, they usually don’t eat when their stomach is somewhere between “almost satisfied” and “full”.

On the other hand, people who struggle to control their weight and adhere to weight loss programs, usually force themselves to control what they eat—they consciously and consistently have to monitor what they eat.

Subconsciously or consciously, thin people can differentiate between “desire” and “real hunger”

When people who think thin see something that looks tasty, they first assess and check whether they are really hungry or not before taking a decision to eat. People who think thin don’t give into unnecessary cravings for food, especially excess of it.

People who think thin are able to easily resist the temptation to distract themselves from a diet, or tolerate food cravings without giving in. Why? Because they are always perceptive to the obvious fact that—like hunger—food cravings will pass away with the passage of time!

Behind every change in behavior, there’s a lot of change in thinking: you can use the psychology of real weight loss to succeed in losing or controlling weight

If you are the type of person who finds it difficult to adhere to diets or weight loss programs—you struggle to control what you eat—then there is one very powerful thing you can do to turn everything around: “think like a thin people”, and use the psychology of real weight loss to succeed in losing or controlling weight.

In most case when it’s difficult to change one’s mindset and start thinking like thin people, then that’s the perfect time to seek the help of a psychotherapist, trained psychologist, or diet coach.

A successful thinking thin program for you

Psychotherapists or trained psychologists have an understanding of weight loss that is different from what the majority of people believe. The experienced ones believe that weight loss doesn’t depend much on what people eat; they believe that it depends on why people eat, and how they eat.

A clear and complete understanding of the mindset of a thin person is crucial and can help anyone change how they handle or deal with food, and control the physical outlook of their body.

If you find it hard controlling your weight and how you eat, there is a highly recommendable program that can work for you the same way it has worked for two individuals I know.

By the time you finish the program, you will have the ability to start “thinking thin”, and both weight loss and control would look easy and natural—not genetical, or based on one’s fast rate of metabolism!

Click here, read more and subscribe to the package which has helped thousands of people, as reviews have shown!

Thinking thin will make you slim down and remain slim—use it to re-train your brain, and lose weight naturally

Are you fed-up being unsuccessful with your weight loss battle? Would you like to get used to thinking the way slim people think—by “thinking thin”? Always remember that you have the same will power that “thinking-thin” people have, even though it seems unfair that you can’t control your weight or how you eat at the moment.

Download this eBook for free: “Real Faith that can Deeply Inspire You Forever”—it can inspire you to overcome challenges & achieve greatness. (Download Instructions: When you click any of the above links, also click the “Skip AD” button that will appear around the top right corner of your screen, and the file will appear for download. Alternatively, if the “Press allow” button appears, click it so that the file(s) will appear for download.)

This new book can boost your faith, positivity, and outlook about life. The chapters in the book which consists majorly of ideas and content from this site, include the following:

1. Faith: the superpower that materializes desires & gives new life to dying ambitions

  • The shield of faith
  • Developing the shield of faith

2. Faith: still strong enough to alter today’s facts

3. Your outcome in life is determined by what you believe in: faith or fact

4. The reality of invisible worlds & life: physical & spiritual

  • Evidences of invisible life
  • The reality of the spiritual world, & life after death

5. How to develop strong faith

  • Definition of faith
  • How strong faith can be developed
  • Certain things that can affect faith

6. How to influence your mind to attract your desires and a glorious afterlife

  • Have a good intention to acquire what you desire
  • Decide what you want
  • Give unto others so that it will be easier for you to receive
  • Make it a habit to always practice visualizing what you want

7. There is magic in positive thinking—always think positively!

  • If positive thinking is effective, why can’t everybody do it?
  • Is there evidence that positive thinking is effective?

8. Past events that disproved the impossible: one person’s impossibility is another person’s possibility

  • Past events that illustrate how people who studied the impossible changed the course of the world
  • The New York Times
  • Nineteenth century chemists
  • Lord Kelvin
  • Albert Einstein
  • Stephen Hawking

9. Prophets of technology, or Prophets of GOD?

  • Two great visionaries
  • Leonardo da Vinci
  • Jules Verne
  • Were they prophets of technology, or prophets of GOD?

10. How to turn defeat into victory by experimenting with different things

  • Look away from defeat at the bottom of the ladder, and towards victory at the top of the ladder
  • Everyone who truly turned defeat into victory, encountered and responded to one form of defeat or another
  • Although it is barely impossible to succeed without encountering hardship and opposition, it is possible to use hardship to move forward and upward ever
  • The lesson is this: gain or salvage something valuable from every situation—good or bad
  • Instead of blaming people or bad luck, look at challenges or setbacks and learn from them

11. The fight of faith: why give up when time comes to fight this important battle?

  • Despite our knowledge about positivity, why do many of us lose the battle of faith?
  • So how can we acquire faith?

12. The importance of protecting your unlimited potential: a look at some unlimited potential achievements & quotes

  • But what is the meaning of unlimited potential?
  • Some of the greatest unlimited potential achievements in history
  • Some popular and inspiring quotes on unlimited potential & possibilities

13. The universality of GOD’s power

  • GOD’s power is so universal, it can be found in the smallest and mightiest deeds in creation
  • The universality of GOD’s power also reaches the deepest part of the human spirit
  • The universality of GOD’s power makes it possible for GOD to be contacted from anywhere in the universe—anywhere!

14. The everlasting generosity of GOD, the universe, or Mother Nature

  • The generosity of GOD seems to be a law in the universe! Why? Because it can be seen everywhere

Thanks a lot for your continuous support and endless motivation.

How faith comes, grows, and increasingly becomes stronger!

Stephen Hawking: living life to the fullest despite constraints and limitations

It’s quite common to see people live with different types of physical and spiritual constraints that either incapacitates them and makes them become so weary and weak to such a point that they lose all hope; on the other hand, it could invigorate them and make them become highly competitive and productive individuals.

It’s a sad fact that despite the wealth and abundance some people enjoy in the absence of disabilities or challenges, they still remain hopeless and unproductive! Their life proves the fact that life isn’t always what it seems to be from the outside—and yes, life is always what it is from the inside.

It is only from the inside that we can overcome

You can overcome all the limitations and constraints that engulf you if you muster enough inner strength, develop unwavering faith and tap into your unlimited potential.

No matter how difficult life is—even if you have been to the brink—you have to keep on focussing on how to apply the combination of your abilities, constraints and opportunities, and always remain flexible in your pursuit of what is important in the real world.

The resilience and productivity of Stephen Hawking in the midst of physical odds and constraints

Stephen Hawking was an English theoretical physicist, cosmologist and author who produced an extraordinary amount of work even though he had motor neurone disease.

He was almost completely paralyzed, and communicated through a speech-generating device which made his thoughts comprehensible to interested hearers who were always ready to listen to the interesting things he said.

Stephen Hawking might have appeared to be handicapped and doomed to live an unproductive life—but no; in the midst of his physical constraints, he explored and unveiled some of the secrets and wonders of the universe.

Yes, it is true that he wasn’t able to move around by himself. And yes, it’s also true that he needed assistance; however, despite the obstacles and assistance he was given, he continued to explore the stars and utilized his opportunity to study, think and write books.

The constant and never-decreasing desire to know more about the universe remained his compulsion and passion. Stephen Hawing had a very clear and undimmed idea of what he wanted despite facing limitations that would normally make many people unproductive for a lifetime.

We can all learn from the faith, zeal, courage, hard work and resilience of Stephen Hawking!

Download this eBook for free: “Real Faith that can Deeply Inspire You Forever”—it can inspire you to overcome challenges & achieve greatness

Everybody has the ability to exhibit some form of genius

Be creative, instead of reactive and passive

Not every crisis is a crisis; crises could actually be wake up calls!

The one outstanding ingredient behind every great discovery & achievement—mental attitude

The type of faith that can deeply inspire you

(Featured Image Credit: Pixabay.com.)