1. Definition of Civil Engineering Services
Civil engineering services are professional duties or works carried out by civil engineers which includes: design, construction, and maintenance of the physically and naturally built environment, including works like roads, bridges, canals, dams, and buildings, etc. A civil engineer is a person who practices civil engineering, i.e. the application of planning, designing, constructing, maintaining, and operating infrastructures while protecting public and environmental health, as well as improving existing infrastructures that have been neglected.
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Civil engineering services take place in the public sector from municipal through to national governments, and in the private sector from individual homeowners through to international companies. Because civil engineering is a vast profession, which includes several specialized sub-disciplines, its history is linked to the knowledge of structures, materials science, geography, geology, soils, hydrology, environment, mechanics, and other fields.
Services Offered By Professional Civil Engineers
The question asked at the assembly of the European Council of Civil Engineers (ECCE) was “What services may be offered by civil engineers in your country?” The aim of the question was to ascertain the degree of diversity in the civil engineering role, and also to discover if there are any exceptions for which special approvals or specialist education is required in the nations that make up the organization. Examples of various types of civil engineering services are listed under the following countries:
The following services are provided by civil engineers:
- design services for infrastructure projects (roads, railways, water supply, sewerage schemes, water treatment plants, hydroelectric power plants, dams, etc.)
- design services (only for the civil engineering portion of design work for buildings, such as structural design, organization of work, material and work specifications, conceptual and detailed structural drawings, etc.)
- supervision (inspection) services during realization of works
- project control to check fulfillment of essential project requirements, in accordance with the Construction Product Directive (Directive 89/106/EEC)
- construction services in building and engineering works
- use and production of raw materials, and material testing services
- maintenance of completed projects
- scientific research in the field of civil engineering.
They may be self-employed, employed in design offices, or employed in other types of companies. Civil engineers are not allowed to offer architectural design services.
Civil engineers can offer various services for civil engineering works including, feasibility studies, civil engineering designs, structural designs, preparation of tender/contract documents, procurement, supervision of construction works etc. Civil engineers who have registered before 1993 can also carry out architectural designs and submit them for building permits. Civil engineers who registered after 1993 are not permitted to submit architectural designs. There is however a dispute as to what ‘architectural design work’ is.
Civil engineers can undertake the design, development, supervision and execution of all forms of construction. Selected activities in construction, which are of decisive significance for the protection of public interest, in the preparation, design, or execution of construction work may be performed only by persons who have a proven professional qualification obtained by examination and have obtained a professional certificate.
A wide range of services may be offered by civil engineers after graduation in the fields of construction, design and maintenance of buildings and structures.
Civil Engineers are involved in all steps of the construction process, so they offer their services in the following phases:
- preliminary plans of works
- materials production
- design of works
- construction processes on job sites
- quality control of works carried out
- operation of works after construction.
They also operate at any functional or operational levels in industry, and in positions of authority in the public sector.
There is a wide range of possibilities of services in Germany, for example: Services related to civil engineering works and transportation facilities, traffic planning services, services relating to buildings, open-air facilities, project control, experts reports and valuations, town planning services, services relating to planning load-bearing structures, services relating to thermal building physics, services relating to sound insulation and acoustics, services relating to soil mechanics, earthworks and foundation engineering.
In Ireland, civil engineers may offer all services. Civil Engineers are allowed to submit “architectural” designs for building permits.
The services offered by Civil Engineers are defined by law but only relating to design. A civil engineer may offer any service in the construction sector. For example, design of structures, urban planning, hydraulics, geotechnics, construction management, etc. Civil engineers are still allowed to submit “architectural” designs for building permits, but only for small buildings. There is a plan to change this in the near future.
Civil engineers perform complex activities in design, territorial development planning and design, project management, research and development, as a site manager, as well as service activities. They are also involved in public and state administration, education, rural development in all kinds of services, surveying and many other areas. For selected activities they must have authorization, i.e. proof of qualification from the Slovak Chamber of Civil Engineers by an examining board including a certificate.
Civil engineers can undertake the development, design, supervision and execution of all forms of construction both in public and private work. For some types of work, e.g. the construction of dams or to work as an independent building inspector, a special authorization is needed.
2. Water Supply Installation
Generally, pipes must be installed to meet requirements for durability, safety and thermal comfort/stability. Prior to installation of water supply facilities, design considerations will be carried out and also, choice of materials will be made. The following factors should be accounted for in the design:
(a) the water supplier’s requirements, including those of notification.
(b) the estimated daily consumption and the maximum and average flow rates required, together with the estimated time of peak flow.
(c) the location of the available supply.
(d) the quality, quantity and pressure required, and the available pressures at various times during a typical day.
(e) the cold water storage capacity required.
(f) the likelihood of ground subsidence due to mining activities or any other reason.
(g) the likelihood of contamination of the site.
(h) transient (short-lived) or surge pressures that might arise during the operation of the system.
Installation shall be designed to avoid waste, undue consumption, misuse, contamination and erroneous measurement. The installation shall be designed to avoid the trapping of air during filling and the formation of air locks during operation.
2.1 Handling of Materials
All materials and components used for the construction of a water system shall be handled with sufficient care and attention to prevent their deterioration, or the ingress (act of entering) of contaminants. Deterioration, which is due to improper laying of pipes, use of poor-quality material, improper tightening of capillary/mechanical joints, and improper compaction of underground/underlying soil, etc., can impair the serviceability, or affect the performance of pipework systems. Some pipes are manufactured from asbestos cement. When working on these pipes and all other types of asbestos containing materials, keep exposure to asbestos dust as low as is reasonably practicable. Great care should be exercised in cutting and grinding operations to keep dust generated to the minimum and prevent people breathing in the dust. This may be achieved by the use of hand rather than power tools.
Bending of Pipes
Damaged pipes shall be rejected. Care should be taken to avoid crimping and restricting the diameter of pipes when forming bends. Purpose-designed equipment should be used where appropriate.
2.2 Joining of Pipes
Care shall be taken to establish satisfactory jointing techniques for all water service pipework. When making joints by welding, brazing or soldering, precautions shall be taken to avoid the risk of fire, and care taken to avoid inhalation of fumes from the jointing process. Ends shall be cut square, all burrs (rough projection left on a work-piece after cutting) shall be removed from the ends of pipes and any jointing materials used shall be prevented from entering the system. All piping and fittings shall be cleaned internally and shall be free from debris. No metal pipe shall be connected to any other pipe or water fitting by means of an adhesive in any case where the metal pipe is:
(a) installed in the ground or passes through or under any wall footing or foundation;
(b) embedded in a wall or solid floor;
(c) enclosed in a chase or duct (enclosed passage for fluid);
(d) in a position where access is difficult.
Cutting tools that are in good condition should be used to limit tube distortion and the tube should be cut square (directly perpendicular) with the axis. Any tube ends that are distorted should be re-rounded using a suitable tool prior to the joint assembly.
When making capillary solder joints (or solder fittings – tubes having small internal diameters), the mating faces of the tube and fitting shall be abrasively cleaned with nylon cleaning pads or emery strip (not steel wool) and flux applied sparingly to the spigot (regulator for controlling the flow of a liquid from a reservoir).
Capillary fittings (pipe fittings which have socket-type ends so that when the fitting is soldered to a pipe end, the solder flows along the ring-like space between the pipe exterior and the socket): the joint should be heated until the solder (lead-free) is constrained within the fitting or is fed in with a solder stick or wire, flows by capillary attraction (surface tension and resulting in the elevation or depression of liquids in capillaries) to fill the joint space. The joint should remain untouched until the solder has cooled and solidified but then any surplus flux (solder discharge) on the assembly should be carefully removed. Use of excessive amounts of flux should be avoided.
If you would like to have the remaining 57 pages of detailed content on this broad subject of civil engineering services, which contains a lot of images for the purpose of illustration, then get my self-published 67-page eBook through the following link: Civil Engineering Services. The topics in the eBook include:
1. Definition of Civil Engineering Services
- Services offered by civil engineers in some selected countries
2. Water Supply Installation
- Handling of materials
- Joining of pipes
- Connections between different materials
- Joining pipes to cisterns and tanks
- Underground pipe laying
- Pipework in buildings
3. Hot Water Systems
- Choice of system
- Gas-Fired Water Heaters in Rooms Containing a Bath or Shower
- Water-jacketed Tube Heaters
- Main types of hot water systems
- Common Materials and Components
4. Sanitary Appliances
- Preliminary Data for Selection of Appliances
- Time Schedule
- Design Considerations
5. Methods of Solid Waste (Refuse) Disposal
- Non-hazardous Waste
- Mixed Waste (Radioactive/Hazardous)
6. Equipment for Air Conditioning & Ventilation
- Air Conditioning
7. Installations for Industrial Buildings
- Gases (Natural Gases)
- Liquids (Liquefied Natural Gases)
- Vapor-Compression Refrigeration, or Vapor-Compression Refrigeration System (VCRS)
- Description of the Vapor-Compression Refrigeration System
9. Vacuum Cleaning
- Major types of vacuum cleaners
10. Fire-fighting Systems
- Fire extinguishers
- Fire hose/Fire hose reels
- Fire hydrant (diesel/electric-driven) systems
- Automatic Sprinkler Systems
(Featured Image Credit: Pixabay.com.)